0.00% Nickel Free Metals: -925 Sterling silver has no nickel, so is wearable by most segments of the population. Sterling is sometimes stamped .925, because sterling silver is made of 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper. -Niobium is another non-nickel metal. It is available in a wide variety of colours, without plating. It is anodized, coloured by dipping it into an electrically charged bath. The amount of current determines the colour. The most popular anodized colours are teal and purple. -14kt yellow gold is commonly made of the following materials: 58% pure gold, 25% pure silver and 17% pure copper.
316L(or 316LVM) Surgical Stainless Steel: Also known as 316L(or 316LVM) SSS 316L or 316LVM are the only acceptable grades of stainless steel for the use of body jewelry. 316L is implant-grade surgical stainless steel-it is probably the most common and most widely used metal for body piercings. 316LVM is the same as 316L, but has the added advantage of having been melted in a vacuum. That means it has a virtually flawless finish and less chance of even minor alloy inclusions, which can irritate the wearer.
Agate: It brings stability to your life. Colour: Agate comes in most colours. Agates range from transparent to opaque in a variety of beautiful colours. It presents various tints in the same specimen. The stones can be artificially stained to produce combinations of colour more vivid than those found inthe natural state. Description: Agate is a semi pellucid crystallized quartz, consisting of banded or with branching inclusions chalcedony. Physical properties of agate are in general those of quartz. Agate has irregular, sometimes circular bands of colour and often replaces fossil wood. Many fossils are agatized material wherethe original organic substance has been replaced by agate while retaining the original structure. Agates are identical in chemicalstructure to jasper, flint, chert, bloodstone, and tiger-eye, and are often found in association with opal. The colourful, banded rocks are used as a semiprecious gemstone and for making mortars and pestles. One will often see these inbeads, agate pendants and necklaces. Birthstone: Agate is the birthstone of Taurus (Bull): April 20 - May 20. Wedding anniversary: Agate is the anniversary gemstone for the 12th year of marriage. Moss Agate is the anniversary gemstonefor the 14th year of marriage. Varieties: There are several types of agate. Varieties include Blue, Blue Lace, Crazy Lace, Green, Indian, Moss, Tree and Wood. The Moss agate or mocha stone contains visible impurities in the form that resemble moss. Care and treatment: Agate will chip and crack rather easily though it has a hardness rating of 7. As with all gems, protect agatefrom scratches and sharp blows. Avoid sudden temperature changes and household chemicals. Healing ability: Agate is cooling stone; it reduces fever, quenches thirst, beneficial in stomach area. It quiets the pulse and heartthrobs and insures good health and a long and prosperous life. Botswana Agate: Use with high-pressure oxygen therapy. Fire Agate: Master healer with colour therapy, enhances all essences. It grounds and balances binds sexual & heart chakra, burnsenergy. Moss Agate: Emotional priorities, mental priorities; circulatory, pancreas & pulses, blood sugar balance, agriculture. Mystical power: Agate guards against danger. Wearers become temperate, continent and cautious. It helps one view themselveswith more clarity and see the world through a broader viewpoint. Wearing Agate is believed to cure insomnia and to insure pleasant dreams.
Alexandrite: The best known and most widely used variety of chrysoberyl is an alexandrite. Because of its great power of absorption of certain colours, alexandrite looks green in daylight and reddish purple in artificial light. Birthstone: Alexandrite along with pearls and moonstone are birthstones of Gemini (Twins): May 21 - June 21. Wedding anniversary: Alexandrite is the anniversary gemstone for the 45th and 55th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Protect alexandrite from scratches, sharp blows, harsh chemicals and extreme temperatures Alexandrite is a beautiful rare stone which is quite expensive. It is very difficult to find natural alexandrite. Most Alexandrites on the market are synthetic. Alexandrite rings are very beautiful. If Alexandrite is set in a ring, the wearer can watch the colour change. Healing ability: Alexandrite helps fighting low self-esteem. It improves central nervous system disorders. Alexandrite relieves spleen & pancreas problems. Mystical power: Alexandrite is a stone of good omen. Alexandrite can assist one in centering the self, reinforcing self-esteem, and increases one's ability to experience joy.
Amazonite: It is a gemstone variety of green microcline, a feldspar mineral. It is usually opaque and therefore is cut en cabochon (with a rounded and convex polished surface). Colour: Amazonite varies in colour from yellow-green to blue-green and may also exhibit fine white streaks. Care and treatment: As with all gemstones, care should be taken to protect amazonite from scratches and sharp blows. Store amazonites in separate boxes. Note that amazonite is frequently confused with jade . Healing ability: Amazonite makes your skin better. Releases fear and anxiety. Mystical power: Amazonite makes your married life happier.
Amber: Allowing happiness to come through. Colour: Amber can vary in colour from yellow to red, from green to blue, but amber's colour is usually honey brown. The best commercial amber is transparent, but some varieties are cloudy. Sometimes insects or pieces of earth, leaves, pine needles and inclusions of small plant and animal fossils are present in the amber. Description: Amber is a fossilized tree resin of now-extinct conifer trees and ancient pine trees. It is an amorphous hydrocarbon and may contain particles of various foreign materials, trapped insects, and air bubbles. Its lustre is greasy to resinous. The resin must be several million years old to be called amber. Recently hardened resins are called copals. Care and treatment: As amber is soft, it can be easily scratched. Be certain to store amber jewelry separately from your other jewelry. Healing ability: Amber is excellent for eyes, and for glandular swellings of the throat and lungs. Amber balances endocrine and digestive network. Mystical power: Amber brings good luck. It is associated with time, cycles and longevity. Amber is also regarded as being highly sensual and magnetic. Amber insures very long enjoyment of the qualities that make the wearer attractive. Amber has long been associated with healing energy and mental stimulation, and is said to balance aggressive traits.
Amethyst: One of the Earth's beautiful stones. Colour: Found in abundance, in its purest form, Amethyst is colourless. The finest quality Amethyst is medium to medium dark intone, vivid in intensity, and purple, reddish purple to bluish purple in hue. Description: Amethyst is the most valuable transparent, coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz that is valuedas a semiprecious gem for its violet colour. It contains more iron oxide Fe2O3 than any other variety of quartz, and expertsbelieve that its colour arises from its iron content. Birthstone: Amethyst is the birthstone of Aquarius (Water Bearer): Jan. 20 - Feb. 18 Wedding anniversary: Amethyst is anniversary gemstone for the 4th and 6th year of marriage. Designers celebrate Amethyst as the ideal choice for jewelry due to its regal colour, variety in size and shape, affordability, andwide tonal range from light to dark purple. Healing ability: Amethyst magnifies psychic abilities and right-brain activity. It strengthens immunity, while energizing andpurifying the blood. Amethyst relieves headaches, improves blood sugar imbalance. Mystical power: Amethyst is associated with a number of superstitions, being regarded as a love charm, and as a protectionagainst thieves. Placed under the pillow at night, the beautiful amethyst is believed to produce a calm and peaceful sleep. Amethyst is given as a symbol of sincerity, security, and peace of mind.
Aquamarine: A symbol of beauty, honesty, and loyalty. Colour: Aquamarines are found in a range of blue shades, from the palest pastel to greenish-blue to a deep blue. While the choiceof colour is largely a matter of taste, the deeper blue gems are more rare. Aquamarine is a pastel gemstone, and while colour canbe quite intense in larger gemstones, the smaller Aquamarines are often less vivid. Description: Aquamarine is pale greenish blue or bluish green variety of beryl. Beryl is a mineral composed ofberyllium aluminum silicate, a commercial source of beryllium. It has long been of interest because several varieties are valued asgemstones. These are aquamarine, emerald and heliodor. Aquamarine is the most common variety of gem beryl, it occurs inpegmatite, in which it forms much larger and clearer crystals than emerald. Birthstone: Aquamarine along with bloodstone is birthstones of Pisces (Fish): Feb. 19 - March 20. Wedding anniversary: Aquamarine is the anniversary gemstone for the 16th and 19th year of marriage. Care and treatment: As with all gemstones, care should be taken to protect aquamarine from scratches and sharp blows. Keepaquamarine jewelry in the dark place, as it often becomes paler if left out in the sun. Clean Aquamarine in ultrasonic jewelrycleaner or with warm, soapy water and a soft bristle brush. Healing ability: Aquamarine works against nerve pain, glandular problems, toothache, and disorders of the neck, jaw and throat. It strengthens liver and kidneys. Aquamarine diminishes problems with eyes, ears and stomach, relieves cough. Moreover,aquamarine protects from perils of the sea, including seasickness. It is said to help ease depression and grief. Mystical power: Aquamarine has a soothing effect on "just married" couples, assisting them in working out their differences andinsuring a long and happy marriage. Aquamarine is said to re-awaken love in long-married couples and signify the making of newfriends. It also provides courage and strengthens the will. Aquamarine protects against the wiles of the devil. Others say that the Aquamarine is an excellent stone for meditation.
Aventurine: It is composed of two gem minerals, one is a plagioclase feldspar and the other is quartz. Both have a sparkling reflection from oriented minute inclusions of mica or hematite, which cause a slight metallic iridescence. Colour: Aventurine is a soft green semi-translucent to mostly opaque stone with mica flecks. Aventurine also comes in silvery, yellow, reddish brown, greenish-brown, bluish green and orange. It contains inclusions of small crystals that reflect light and give a range of colours - depending on the nature of the inclusion. Wedding anniversary: Aventurine is the anniversary gemstone for the 8th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Translucent aventurine often fades in the sun, therefore the aventurine jewelry is better kept in the dark place. Aventurine is a very charming inexpensive stone. It's claim to fame is having inclusions that look like sparkles. This is an easy identifying factor often called aventurescence. There was a custom of assigning various Masculine and Feminine Saints with a particular gem for use in talismans. The name Andrew or Andre (i.e. patron Saint Andrew) is associated with Aventurine. Healing ability: Avanturine is said to increase libido. Releases fear and anxiety. Green aventurine strengthens one's blood and muscle tissues. Mystical power: Aventurine is said to increase confidence, and gratitude, promotes emotional tranquility and positive attitudes. Aventurine is a wonderful stone to use daily, especially during meditation and prayer.
Bar Setting: In this setting, the stones are set between bars. The diamonds are nested in grooves and overlapped by metal using a special hammering tool. This type of setting is used for gems with hardness of 9 and up.
Bead Setting: It is very beautiful and can make stones appear larger. Many small stones are placed very close together. Each stone is separated and held in place by 3-6 little metal beads. Stones are placed into small drilled holes, giving the appearance of a continuous or paved surface. This setting can be very expensive because so detailed and time consuming to create.
Bezel Setting: It is one of the oldest types of setting. The bezel consists of a metal rim or collar which completely encases the sides of a stone. Because the rim extends above the band, it adds height and dimension to the jewelry. Solid bezels offer a more traditional look, whereas half bezels are split into 2 sections and give a more modern appearance.
Bloodstone It is dark-green variety of the silica mineral chalcedony that has nodules of bright-red jasper distributed throughout its mass. Polished sections therefore show red spots on a dark-green background, and from the resemblance of these to drops of blood it derives its name. Its physical properties are those of quartz. Colour: Bloodstone is a green stone with red spots. It also occurs in shades of dark green with red, brown and multicoloured spots. The iron minerals cause the deep red and brown colours. The name's origin: Bloodstone is a stone with red spots which resemble drops of blood, so it is received its name due to this similarity. Heliotrope derives its name from Greek words meaning sun and turning. Birthstone: Bloodstone along with aquamarine are traditional birthstones of Pisces (Fish): Feb. 19 - March 20. Care and treatment: Protect bloodstone from scratches, sharp blows, harsh chemicals and extreme temperatures. The polish will be removed if you get this type of stone wet. Bloodstone is an inexpensive stone. It is often used for pendants and bead necklaces. Healing ability: In ancient times, bloodstone was thought to be able to stop hemorrhages with the merest touch. Bloodstone relieves stomach and bowel pain. It strengthens blood purifying organs and improves blood circulation. Bloodstone has a positive influence on a bladder. Mystical power: Bloodstone is used to help one become more knowledgeable in the ways of the world. Bloodstone is also believed to be a very magical stone.
Carat: If you are shopping for a gemstone, one of the terms that you will surely come in contact with is the word carat. Carat, plain and simple is a unit of mass and weight.The measurement of carat was first used to only measure diamonds.However, since the terminology caught on, carat is now used to state the weight of many semiprecious and precious gemstones and minerals.A carat is regarded as 0.2 grams. It should be noted that this measurement of weight is only for the total mass of the gemstone and has nothing to do with the gem's quality or color. Another term that you should be familiar with is TCW.This stands for Total Carat Weight.When diamonds or other types of gemstones are very small in size and usually included in a piece of jewelry as chips, instead of giving the measurement of each individual small stone, it is given a total weight of all the chips together. It is also important to note that a rough diamond or gemstone is much larger in carat weight before it is cut.Usually through the cutting process, lots of lower quality materials are removed, especially inclusions if possible.The result is less mass, but usually a much prettier and higher quality stone. Besides the term carat, there is also Karat.Karat is also a term in the jewelry business, usually associated with gold.Karat does not denote the mass or weight of gold, it denotes the purity.
Chalcedony: It is finely crystallized or fibrous quartz that forms rounded crusts, rinds, or stalactites in volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Chalcedony is a precious stone that occurs in many forms, colours, and shapes. Other physical properties are those of quartz. Colour: Chalcedony can be virtually any colour of the rainbow. It is commonly pale blue, yellow, brown or gray with nearly wax like lustre. A white, buff, or light tan species of chalcedony are also occurred. Care and treatment: Protect chalcedony from scratches, sharp blows, harsh chemicals and extreme temperatures. Chalcedony is an inexpensive stone. It is one of the best wearing stones on the market. Chalcedony also one of the most collected gemstones today. Healing ability: This beautiful stone is believed to banish fear, hysteria, depression, mental illness and sadness. Chalcedony reduces fever. Wearing chalcedony is believed to be excellent for eyes. Mystical power: Chalcedony prevents from touchiness and melancholy. It is worn by many to promote calm and peace. Chalcedony also stimulates creativity.
Channel Setting: Is one of the most elegant settings and they're best suited for stones with straight sides. In a channel setting a continuous row of stones is placed into a metal channel, with no metal separating the individual stones. Channel-set stones are often used for side stones in a setting. A continuous row of gems placed in a channel setting is called an anniversary or eternity ring. Gems in a channel setting are well protected since they have no exposed edges, but the ring may be very difficult to resize later.
Charoite: It is an unsual mineral and of rare occurrence. It formed from alteration of limestones by the close presences of an alkali-rich nephline syenite intrusion. The heat, pressure and more importantly, the infusion of unique chemicals into the rock is responsible for the transformations into new minerals such as charoite. Colour: The colours in each piece of Charoite range from bright lavender, violet and lilac to dark purple with white, gray and black veining. It forms a swirling pattern of interlocking crystals. Royal lavender flows with chatoyant streaks of white around bits of black, peach and opalescent gray. Healing ability: Put charoite beneath your pillow, especially if you are prone to disturbed sleep or fears which surface in dreams. In combination with amethyst, it will help to release this fears.Mystical power: Mystical power: Charoite is said to be useful for the cleansing and purification of one's energy body as well as for the transmutation of negative energies within oneself. Charoite transmutes negativity and cleanses the aura. Charoite facilitates the release of fear and dissolution of negative energies encountered in the process of aligning with your soul's purpose. Work with Charoite to foster a synthesis between the heart and crown chakra, walk your spiritual path with awareness, and manifest your soul's wisdom and light in daily life. The purple colour of Charoite, among its other roles, helps to bring us closer to spirit by showing us that everything, even the thoughts we hold as true, can be dissolved and replaced with more empowering energies.
Citrine: It is transparent, coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz . Citrine is a semiprecious gem that is valued for its yellow to brownish colour and its resemblance to the rarer topaz. Natural citrine is rare compared to amethyst or smoky quartz , both of which are often heated to turn their natural colour into that of citrine. Citrine is a signature of wisdom and peace. Colour: Pale yellow to a madeira orange in all of its glorious golden and yellow colours. The yellow colour is from the presence of iron, the darker the colour - the higher the grade. Birthstone: Citrine along with topaz are birthstones of Scorpius (Scorpion): Oct. 24 - Nov. 21 . Wedding anniversary: Citrine is the anniversary gemstone for the 17th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Citrine can be easily scratched. Citrine permanently changes colour if left in the sunlight for several hours, hence citrine jewelry should be kept away from prolonged exposure to strong light or heat. Citrine is a beautiful translucent yellow gemstone. The larger the stone, the more golden the tone. It is a popular and affordable alternative to the much more expensive yellow sapphire or yellow diamond. To create wondeful multi-coloured jewelry, it is often combined with other stones such as: peridot, amethyst, and garnet. Citrine is often marketed under various names that confuse it with topaz to inflate its price. It may be distinguished from topaz by its inferior hardness and from decolourized amethyst by its lack of reddish cast. Healing ability: Citrine is valuable in the treatment of depression, it eliminates self-destructive tendencies. Citrine is said to stimulate memory. It aids digestion, and removes toxins from the body. Citrine is a good healing stone, especially for heart, kidney and liver. It helps fighting diabetes. Mystical power: Citrine symbolizes light-heartedness, joy and happiness. Citrine is a great protective talisman. It calms and soothes. Citrine is the signature of wisdom and peace. It stimulates the mental body and aids the opening of the bridge between higher mental body and intuitional levels. Citrine is said to help one connect with Spirit. It enhances creativity, and motivates writers.
Coral: A symbol of youth, health and hope. Colour: Coral comes in a variety of colours: in red, rose, orange, blue, white and black. Description: Coral is the skeletal material of calcium carbonate, built up by small animals that live in colonies in the sea. Red, pink, and white coral is mostly calcium carbonate. Black and golden coral is conchiolin. Coral is usually branchlike and occurs in a variety of colours, of which the most sought after are rose red to red. In addition to coral, a number of other organic materials, including amber, pearl, ivory, and jet, are considered gems. Wedding anniversary: Coral is the anniversary gemstone for the 35th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Coral is especially fragile. Protect coral from scratches and sharp blows. Store corals in separate boxes. Also avoid large temperature changes. Do not clean coral in a home ultrasonic cleaner. Healing ability: Coral is used in difficulties of the lungs and digestion. It relates to the circulation of the blood and to the heart. Coral helps restore harmony in the event of emotional conflict. It works against nutritional deficiencies, depression and lethargy. Mystical power: Coral is said to cure madness and give wisdom. Coral is used to build an emotional foundation. Coral protects children. It aids in the safe crossing of rivers, passages through tempests. It excites nerve power, brilliancy and gladness and is a true health-giver. Note that coral loses its powers when broken.
Cultured Pearls: A pearl is a hard object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is made up of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited inconcentric layers. The difference between wild and cultured pearls focuses on whether the pearl was created spontaneously bynature-without human intervention-or with human aid. Cultured or farmed pearls from pearl oysters and freshwater musselsmake up the majority of those that are currently sold.
Diamond: It is a mineral composed of pure carbon. It is difficult to accept that chemically this brilliant gemstone is the same as black opaque graphite and even ordinary soot. Diamond is the hardest natural substance, with a hardness of 10 on Mohs' scale, so it can be cut or polished only by another diamond. It can be identified by its hardness and adamantine lustre. Despite its extreme hardness diamond is brittle and at 4,289 degree C a diamond will completely burn up leaving nothing behind. Diamonds are the most popular gemstone of all time. Diamonds used for jewelry are graded on the basis of colour from blue-white to yellow. Grading also is done on the basis of purity, which varies from perfectly clear, extremely pure stones to those with many impurities and flaws. Diamonds are said to be of the first water when very transparent, and of the second or third water as transparency decreases. Diamond stones are weighed in carats (1 carat = 200 milligrams) and in points (1 point = 0.01 carat). The hardness, brilliance, and sparkle of diamonds make them unsurpassed as gems. Diamonds are beautiful symbols of love around the world. Colour: Diamonds are usually colourless. However, brown, yellow, green, blue, purple, pink, red, gray and black variations are also found depending on the impurities present. Diamond derives its name from the Greek word adamas, which means "invincible". Birthstone: Diamond is the birthstone of Aries (Ram): March 21 - April 19. Wedding anniversary: Diamond is the anniversary gemstone for the 30th and 60th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Diamonds should be stored separately. They can scratch other jewelry as well as each other. Diamonds are special gifts due to their glamour, rarity, durability and beauty. Diamonds are welcome gifts for all occasions. They are beautiful symbols of love around the world. A diamond with proper proportions will send all light entering the diamond out of the top of the stone. This is considered an ideal cut and what you should be looking for. If you want a nice diamond be prepared to pay a nice price. Low price means low quality. Be aware of numerous imitations of diamonds: cubic zirconia, synthetic moissianite, synthetic rutile, strontium titanate, colourless topaz, colourless sapphire, and many others. Scratching glass is useless test as many imitations made of quartz, which also scratches glass. Healing ability: Diamond is a great assistance for all brain diseases. It is beneficial in stomach area. Diamonds strengthen the owner's memory. Mystical power: Diamonds give faith, purity, life, joy, innocence and repentance. They assist in developing concentration and in being straight-forward and honest. It is believed the diamond loses its brilliance with the health of the wearer, regaining it only when the owner recovers. Diamond is an antidote to poison and is capable of detecting poison by exhibiting a moisture or perspiration on its surface. Supposedly, the higher quality the diamond, the better it supports these qualities.
Emerald: It's the perfect emblem of an everlasting love. Colour: Emeralds occur in a variety of green colours. The magnificent green colour that gives extraordinary value to this gem is dueto small amounts of chromium and vanadium. Some emeralds have yellowish to bluish overtones. The stone loses colour when strongly heated. Description: Emerald is grass-green variety of beryl that is highly valued as a gemstone. The physical propertiesof emerald are essentially the same as those of beryl. Emeralds and are cut in a variety of different shapes, ranging from the traditional rectangular step-cut, known as the "emeraldcut," to rounds, ovals, squares and cabochons. Because of emerald's high value, attempts were long made to manufacture it synthetically. These efforts finally met withsuccess in the mid of thirties in Germany. Nowadays synthetic emeralds are manufactured in the United States. Aquamarinecrystals are placed in a water solution and used as a seed to produce emeralds. The crystals thus grown appear very similar tonatural crystals and rival them in colour and beauty. Birthstone: Emerald is the birthstone of Taurus (Bull): April 20 - May 20. Wedding anniversary: Emerald is the anniversary gemstone for the 20th, 35th and 55th year of marriage. Varieties: Uralian emerald is in fact yellowish green or emerald-green andradite (variety of garnet). Care and treatment: Clean your emerald with a soft, dry cloth. Oil is used during the stone treatment, therefore you should neverclean an emerald with an ultrasonic cleaner because this oil could be removed or damaged. In addition, do not clean emeralds inhot soapy water since it too can remove this oil. Avoid sudden temperature changes as emeralds lose their colour when strongly heated. Healing ability: Though not meant to replace traditional medical treatment, emerald is extensively used for physical andemotional healing. Emerald has refreshing soft green colour, which has amazing healing powers for eyes, and it is a good talisman for any eye trouble. If worn about the neck or finger, emerald prevents convulsions in children. Emeralds are also an antidote for poisons andpoisonous wounds. It aids with ailments of the spine. Emeralds help fighting all mental illness and neurological disorders. Mystical power: Many virtues are ascribed to emerald. It is said to drive away evil spirits, and to preserve the chastity of thewearer. Emerald is said to bring wisdom. Believed by the ancients to empower the owner with foresight into the future, anemerald is regarded as an amulet for good fortune. The emerald gives faith, success in love, and discovery of false friends. It changes colour in the presence of false friends orfalse witnesses. It promotes constancy of mind, true friendship, and felicity in domestic life. As a love token, it registers thedegree of love. If pale, love is waning. An emerald symbolizes rebirth and youth. According to legends, emeralds strengthen the owner's memory, quicken the intelligence and assist in predicting the future. When worn, the stone is supposed to prevent epilepsy attack, and when held in the mouth it is believed to be a cure fordysentery. It is supposed to assist women at childbirth.
Enamel: Any smooth glossy coating that resembles ceramic glaze; a coloured glassy substance, translucent or opaque, fused to the surface of articles made of metal, glass, etc., for ornament or protection.
Enamel Jewelry:Enameling: Enameling is the fusion of a special powdered glass to metals. The glass can be applied using different techniques, but all methods use heat to melt the powder. View designer enamel jewelry and get details about the process used to make it.
Flush Setting: Flush settings are the most subtle because stones are sunk into a mounting until they are level with the surface. They are very popular for larger stones because they offer great protection, as well as a very modern look. However, they don't allow a stone to reflect much light.
Garnet: It's a stone of vitality and passion. Colour: The versatile garnet comes in a virtual rainbow of colours, including pink, red, purple, orange, yellow, violet, green,colourless, occasionally black, brown and many shades of red and green. The most common colour of garnets is reddish brown. Bohemian Garnet is deep red gemstone; Russian Demantoid and African Tsavorite are vibrant green. Description: Garnets are a group of common silicate minerals that have similar crystal structures andchemical compositions. It can be translucent to transparent, sometimes opaque with a vitreous or resinous lustre. Garnets are actually one of the largest families of gemstones. Most natural garnets are mixtures of two or more of the following pure species: pyrope, almandine, spessartine, uvarovite, grossular, andradite. Garnets occur in a very wide variety of formations, colours, and clarities. Birthstone: The garnet is considered to be the birthstone for Capricornus (Goat): Dec. 22 - Jan. 19. Varieties: There are following major types of garnets: Almandine, Pyrope (also called Bohemian garnet, or Cape ruby), Spessartine, Grossular (also called grossularite, or Gooseberry garnet), Andradite, Rhodolite, Carbuncle, Hessonite (also called essonite, or Cinnamon stone), Topazolite, Uvarovite and Uralian emerald (or demantoid). Care and treatment: Clean garnet with a dry soft cloth. As with all gemstones, care should be taken to protect it fromscratches, sharp blows, harsh chemicals and extreme temperatures. Healing ability: Garnet is an excellent assistance for blood deficiency diseases. It stimulates bloodstream and pituitary gland,relieves rheumatism and arthritis pain. Garnet combats depression and lethargy. Garnet also stimulates the spleen properly. Garnet protects against depression andimpure thoughts. Cures fever and promotes good health. Mystical power: Garnet should be carried close to the body. Its energy is balancing and peaceful. This stone of passionstimulates the sexual drive. Garnet gives energy and courage. It is said to encourage robust good health and sexual desire,enhance the wearer's imagination. Garnet symbolizes fire, faith, courage, truth, grace, compassion, constancy and fidelity. Italso offers protection to the traveler.
Gold Fill: Gold fill (also called gold overlay): is made by using heat and pressure to apply a layer of karat gold to a base of less costly metal. This produces a surface with karat gold. The minimum layer of karat gold must equal at least 1/20 of the total weight of the item.
Gold Plate: It's a very thin deposit of gold colour, or actual gold (about 1/1,000 - 1/1,000,000 of an inch). The colour matches 14kt gold. Heavy gold electroplate might be 2 or 3/1000s of an inch thick (this can also be written as 2 or 3 mils).
Gold Plating: It is a method of depositing a thin layer of gold onto the surface of another metal, most often copper or silver (to make silver-gilt), by chemical or electrochemical plating. This article covers plating methods used in the modern electronicsindustry; for more traditional methods, often used for much larger objects. Gold plating of silver is used in the manufacture of jewelry. Like copper, silver atoms diffuse into the gold layer, causing slow gradual fading of its colour and eventually causing tarnishing of the surface. This process may take months and even years,depending on the thickness of the gold layer. A barrier metal layer is used to counter this effect. Copper, which also migratesinto gold, does so more slowly than silver. The copper is usually further plated with nickel. A gold-plated silver article is usually asilver substrate with layers of copper, nickel, and gold deposited on top of it.
Hematite: Helps to keep inward peace. Stone's names: Hematite, Haematite. Colour: Hematites occur in opaque red or red-brown. Description: Fe2O3 Iron oxide. Hematite is a silvery, shiny opaque stone that almost looks like metal. Hematite is heavy andrelatively hard oxide mineral, that constitutes the most important iron ore because of its high iron content (70 percent) and itsabundance. The steel-gray crystals and coarse-grained varieties have a brilliant metallic lustre and are known as specular iron ore or lookingglass ore. They are used as intaglios in men's signet rings. Thin scaly types are called micaceous hematite. Much hematite occurs in a soft, fine-grained, earthy form called red ochre or rundle. Intermediate between these types are compact varieties, often with a reniform surface (kidney ore) or a fibrous structure(pencil ore). Red ochre is used as a pigment in paints and crayons, a purified form, rouge, is used to polish plate glass. Healing ability: Garnet helps fighting against venereal diseases; it has a positive influence on a bladder. This stone also helps to treat hysteria. Mystical power: Said to be a good healing and grounding stone, it strengthens the body and improve resistance to life'sstresses. Hematite inspires inner life and helps to keep inward peace.
Illusion Setting: It consists of several gems laid side by side with no metal between them. Grooves in each stone fit into a metal frame which is hidden from view below the surface. This setting offers great protection for your stones and is a perfect choice if you are active. These settings are also very popular for engagement and wedding rings because they create the illusion of a larger diamond. Unfortunately, these settings can be very expensive and difficult to repair.
Inlay Setting: Inlay settings offer great protection for stones because they are directly set or inlaid into the metal. Part of the surface of the metal is cut away so the stones can be partially embedded into the hollowed section. As a result, the two materials appear level and can be formed into intricate and stunning designs. It's a more complicated and expensive design.
Iolite: It is a blue Magnesium Aluminum Silicate mineral that occurs as crystals or grains in igneous rocks, only as a result of contamination of the magma by aluminous sediment. Iolite has a pleasing colour of blue, but a rather extraordinary optical property. The gemstone changes colours depending upon which angle it is viewed from. Colour: Iolite is a transparent, violet-blue, light blue, blue, rich blue-violet stone. Varieties: The stones from the gem gravels of Sri Lanka have been called water sapphires due to the blue-violet colour. Iolite is sometimes called dichroite because of its marked pleochroism: different coloured light is transmitted in different directions. From the stone history: Iolite, known as the Vikings' compass, due to its ability to determine the direction of the sun on overcast days. When the legendary Viking mariners sailed the wide ocean, they used thin pieces of iolite as the world's first polarizing filter. Looking through an iolite lens, they could determine the exact position of the sun, and navigate safely. The natural mineral has little commercial use. When clear, iolite is cut as a gem. Synthetic magnesium iolite has a low thermal expansion and is used as a semirefractory material because of its resistance to thermal shock. Iolite is commonly cut into traditional shapes, and its most desirable colour is a rich violet-blue. Iolite shows many colours in a single stone. It is very important to look at an iolite from several directions before you purchase, because the stone presents very different colours from different angles. If cut properly the stone shows its best blue colour through the top of the stone. But viewed from another angle the stone may appear colourless. The price of iolites about the same as of nice amethysts in a good colour. This pleasing violet gemstone is gaining widespread popularity for its beauty and its attractive affordability.
Jasper: It is opaque, fine-grained or dense variety of the silica mineral chert. Jasper, long used for jewelry and ornamentation, has a dull lustre but takes a fine polish. Its hardness and other physical properties are those of quartz. Color: It exhibits various colors, but chiefly brick red to brownish red. It owes its color to admixed hematite, but when it occurs with clay admixed, the color is a yellowish white or gray, or with goethite, a brown or yellow. Often jasper is multi-colored. Care and treatment: The polish on jasper will often be washed away in water. Clean your jasper jewelry with a soft dry cloth. Jasper is a very pretty, inexpensive gemstone. It is usually worn as beads or cabochon jewelry. Healing ability: Medicinal values were long attributed to jasper, including a belief that wearing it strengthened the stomach. Jasper was also believed to cure gynecological problems. Mystical power: Leopard skin Jasper is said to bring one what they need. Poppy Jasper is said to help bring joy into life. Also it is said to help one sleep. Jasper was thought to drive away evil spirits and protect against snake and spider bites.
Jade: A gemstone of unique symbolic energy, and unique in the myths that surround it. With its beauty and wide-ranging expressiveness, jade has held a special attraction for mankind for thousands of years.This gem, with its discreet yet rather greasy lustre, which comes in many fine nuances of green, but also in shades of white, grey, black, yellow, and orange and in delicate violet tones. It is strictly speaking a generic term for two different gems, nephrite and jadeite. Because of its beneficial effect on the kidneys, the stone was also known as 'lapis nephriticus'. That, indeed, is where the term 'nephrite' came from. Jadeite and nephrite are both regarded as genuine jade. Both are tough, since they consist of dense, close-grained, matted aggregates, but they differ from one another in their chemical composition and colours. Nephrite ranges mainly from mid to dark green or grey-green, but it can also be white, yellowish or reddish. Rarer, and somewhat tougher, jadeite displays hues which include green, but also white or pink, and reds, blacks, browns and violets. In both minerals, the way the colour is distributed varies a great deal. Only in the very finest jade is the colour evenly distributed. Both nephrite and jadeite often have veins, blemishes and streaks running through them, though these may not always be regarded as flaws. On the contrary, some of these patterns are considered particularly valuable.
Lapis Lazuli: It is a semiprecious stone valued for its deep blue color. The source of the pigment ultramarine, Lapis lazuli is not a mineral but a rock colored by lazurite. In addition to the sodalite minerals in lapis lazuli, small amounts of white calcite and of pyrite crystals are usually present. Because lapis is a rock of varying composition, its physical properties are variable. Color: Lapis Lazuli occurs in various shades of blue with some qualities being speckled with white calcite and some with yellow pyrite. The finest Lapis Lazuli is even blue color with little or no veining from other elements. Wedding anniversary: Lapis Lazuli is the anniversary gemstone for the 7th and 9th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Lapis Lazuli can easily be scratched or chipped. Water can dissolve the stone's protective coatings; hence clean your lapis lazuli jewelry with a soft dry cloth. Lapis lazuli has been widely used as a semiprecious stone throughout history. It is most often seen as a necklace of beads or carved pendants.Fine natural Lapis Lazuli can be rather pricey. Jewelry with the high quality stones with no calcite or pyrite veins can be quite expensive. Healing ability: The stone is said to increase psychic abilities. Lapis is said to be a cure for melancholy and for certain types of fever. Lapis lazuli eliminates negative emotions. It relieves sore throat pain. Mystical power: Traditionally believed to increase mental clarity, virility, and calm. Lapis Lazuli is energy focuser for teachers, lecturers and speakers. It enhances creative self-expression. It is believed to be useful in relieving depression and promoting spirituality. Lapis Lazuli is also powerful during meditation.
Malachite: A talisman for children. Colour: Malachite is an opaque, banded stone, the colours in the bands range from a very light green to almost deep green. Description: Malachite is a semi-precious stone and also a valuable copper ore, hydrous copper carbonate. It isresponsible for the green colour of tarnished copper and bronze. Because of its distinctive bright green colour and its presence inthe weathered zone of nearly all copper deposits, malachite serves as a prospecting guide for that metal. Malachite has beenused as an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. Wedding anniversary: Malachite is the anniversary gemstone for the 13th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Malachite is especially fragile. Protect malachite from scratches and sharp blows. Also avoid largetemperature changes. Do not clean malachite in a home ultrasonic cleaner. Washing malachite in water will remove its protectivepolish. If setting or repairing in jewelry be careful of heat since a jeweler's torch can damage the stone. Healing ability: Malachite is said to aid in the regeneration of body cells, creates calm and peace, and aids one's sleep. Mystical power: A gorgeous stone, Malachite is worn by many to detect impending danger. This beautiful green stone offersbands of varying hues and is believed by many to lend extra energy. It is believed that gazing at Malachite or holding it relaxesthe nervous system and calms stormy emotions. Malachite is said to bring harmony into one's life. It is also believed thatmalachite gives knowledge and patience. Malachite is used as a children's talisman to ward off danger and illness.
Marcasite: Trade name for a bright iron mineral called cubic pyrite. Common in antique jewelry, marcasite is currently popular. Usually is set into silver or pewter jewelry creating an antique jewelry look. The minerals marcasite and pyrite are similar in composition but are actually different. True marcasite is not suitable for jewelry making so "marcasite" jewelry usually uses pyrites round-cut and polished, mounted in a rhodium-plated silver setting.
Moonstone: It is soft milky white stone, the most valuable variety of feldspar with rainbow sheen. Moonstone shows a silvery or bluish iridescence that is caused by the intergrowth of two different types of feldspar with different refractive indexes. The term moonstone also has been applied to the plagioclase feldspars peristerite and labradorite, which also exhibit iridescence. Moonstone - brings love into one's life. Color: Moonstones come in a variety of colors, ranging from colorless to white, gray, brown, yellow, orange, green, or pink. Clarity ranges from transparent to translucent. Birthstone: Moonstone along with alexandrite and pearls are birthstones of Gemini (Twins): May 21 - June 21. Wedding anniversary: Moonstone is the 13th anniversary stone. Care and treatment: Moonstone can be easily scratched as it has a hardness of 6. Store moonstones carefully and never allow two specimens to touch each other. Stone has a rainbow-like array of colors and will pick up colors you wear. The best moonstone has a blue sheen, perfect clarity, and a colorless body color. It is often worn in rings, pendants or bead necklaces. Healing ability: Moonstone aligns vertebrae. It is good digestive aid. Moonstone also soothes and balances the emotions. Mystical power: Moonstone is believed to be protective for women and babies. It's also associated with the sea and planting cycles. Moonstone is said to balance yin and yang. In India, moonstone is regarded as a sacred stone. It is believed to bring good fortune. Legend says that Moonstone is a highly prized gift for lovers as it arouses tender passion.
Mother of Pearl: It is the common name for iridescent nacre, a blend of minerals that are secreted by oysters and other mollusks and deposited inside their shells, coating and protecting them from parasites and foreign objects. Nacre is the same substance that is deposited around an object that becomes lodged in the mollusk--either naturally or inserted by humans--to become a pearl. As mentioned, mother of pearl (or nacre), is a material that forms the shell lining of most mollusks. Some sources of mother of pearl which are used as an inlay in jewelry and furniture are abalone and oysters. MOP comes in different natural colours and is processed (dyed) for decorative purposes.
Nickel Free: The term can be confusing. Jewelry marked nickel free is allowed to contain a very small amount of nickel ... but it is such a tiny amount that it takes very sensitive instruments days and sometimes weeks to measure it. All standards are that items labeled nickel free may not contain more than 0.05% nickel. In other words, there cannot be more than 1 part in 2,000 that is nickel. Some standards are even more stringent: 0.01% nickel.
Obsidian: It is a natural glass of volcanic origin that is formed by the rapid cooling of viscous lava. Obsidian is extremely rich in silica (about 35 to 80 percent) and is low in water. Obsidian is made of the same minerals as granite but cooled so quickly that they do not have time to crystallize.Obsidian has a glassy lustre and is slightly harder than window glass. Though obsidian is typically jet-black in color, the presence of hematite produces red and brown varieties, and the inclusion of tiny gas bubbles may create a golden sheen. Obsidian in attractive and variegated colors is used as a semiprecious stone. Color: Obsidian is usually black. Other colors include: brown, gray, red, blue and green, clear, orange, yellow. Varieties: Black patterned obsidian with grayish-white inclusions which resemble snowflakes is often called snowflake obsidian. Care and treatment: Obsidian is fairly fragile. Avoid sharp blows as it will crack. Mystical power: Obsidian is often used for gaining clear insight into problems. Obsidian has a hardness rating of 5.
Onyx: Onyx:A symbol of eloquence. Stone's names: Onyx, Sardonyx (with white and brown bands). Colour: The layers in these stones range from translucent to opaque for sardonyx. The stones vary in colour, too. They may be whiteor gray, ranging too many colourful varieties. Sardonyx stones usually contain flat-banded, white and brownish-red bands. Onyx isa gemstone with alternating light and dark bands, which are coloured in brown, red, black, white and grey. Description: SiO2 Onyx is striped, semiprecious variety of the silica mineral agate with white and black, brown or redalternating bands. Its properties are the same as those of quartz. Birthstone: Sardonyx is the birthstone of Leo (Lion): July 23 - Aug 22. Wedding anniversary: Onyx is the anniversary gemstone for the 7th year of marriage. Black Onyx is the anniversary gemstone for the 10th year of marriage. Varieties: Varieties of onyx include carnelian onyx, with white and red bands, and sardonyx, with white and brown bands. Care and treatment: Onyx may chip or scratch rather easily, so store onyx carefully and never allow two specimens to touch eachother. Healing ability: Onyx is used as a heart, kidney, nerve, capillary, hair, and nail strengthener. Onyx is said to help one sleep. This gemstone helps to eliminate apathy, stress and neurological disorders. Mystical power: This gemstone eliminates negative thinking; it is also believed to sharpen the wits of the wearer. Onyx is said tobring spiritual inspiration. It is a great assistance in holding emotions and passions under control. Black Onyx is used to help one change habits.
Opal: It is given as a symbol of hope, happiness and truth. Colour: Opal is fundamentally colourless, but such material is rarely found. Disseminated impurities generally impart to opal various dull body colours that range from the yellows and reds derived from iron oxides to black from manganese oxides and organic carbon. The milkiness of many white and gray opals is attributable to an abundance of tiny gas-filled cavities in them. Precious opal reflects light with a play of brilliant colours across the visible spectrum, red being the most valued. Description: Amorthous silica, A solidified jelly so it has no crystal structure and contains up to 13% water. Precious opals are translucent to transparent and are distinguished by a combination of milky to pearly opalescence and an attractive play of many colours. These colours flash and change as a stone is viewed from different directions are caused by interference of light along minute cracks and other internal in homogeneities. Opal is extensively used as a gemstone. Various forms of common opal are widely mined for use as abrasives, insulation media, fillers, and ceramic ingredients. Varieties: Black opal, with a very dark gray or blue to black body colour, is particularly rare and highly prized. White opal has light body colours. Fire opal is characterized by yellow, orange, or red body colour. White and Fire opals are much more common. Healing ability: Opal has been described in medieval times as a cure for diseases of the eye. Fire Opal: Red corpuscle & blood disorders; depression; apathy; lethargy; Black Opal: Reproductive organs; spleen & pancreas; filters red corpuscles & aids white corpuscles; bone marrow; depression, especially of sexual origin; White Opal: Balances left and right brain hemispheres for neuro disorders; stimulates white corpuscles; Mystical power: Black opal is regarded as an extremely lucky stone. In ancient times opal was accepted as a symbol of faithfulness and confidence. It has reputed healing properties, especially to increase mental capacities such as creative imagination. Black opals worn near the heart on necklaces made of gold are said to protect one from the evil eye and protect travelers on journeys to faraway lands. Opals have been ground up and used magic potions to heal the body, ward off bad dreams, and used an energy enhancement tools.
Oxidized Silver: Is a method of passivating silver, for a specific desired effect and shading, and protecting the silver from, any further undesired oxidization, in any unwanted effect. Thus maintaining the original artistic effect intended. Thus you aremaking it tarnish, in a specific designed pattern. Oxidized silver is black (that's what tarnish is). What it most likely means isthat the charms have intentionally been oxidized to provide a specific appearance, perhaps to emphasize a design moreeffectively.
Paua-Abalone: Is the Maori name given to three species of large edible sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks which belong to the familyHaliotidae (there is only genus Haliotis), known in the United States and Australia as abalone, and in the United Kingdom asormer shells.There is no other shell in the world that has the colour like Paua Shell colour that varies from greens & pinks topurples & blues and even some shells with gold or crimson toning. The vibrant changing rainbows of colours that you see as youmove this piece of jewelry, is the real natural colour of paua shell. No dyes or artificial colours. The colour in the paua shell changes when viewed at different angles. This iridescence, similar to that of Mother of Pearl shell, but far more brilliant, is what makes paua shell so amazing as a gem material for use in jewelry. It is truly one of nature'smarvels. Each shell is different in its colour toning, and in the patterns within the shell. The black patterns in the shell comefrom layers of proteinthat are laid down betweenthe layers of calcium that make up the shell. The brilliant colours are fromlight being refracted within the crystal layers; the same effect that the iridescent colour found in Opals.
Pearl: It symbolizes love, success, and happiness. Colour: The colour of pearls varies with the mollusk and its environment. It ranges from black to white, with the rose of Indian pearls esteemed most. Other colours are cream, gray, blue, yellow, lavender, green, and mauve. All occur in delicate shades. Cultured pearls are being produced in virtually every colour of the rainbow. Description: The chief component of the nacre that constitutes the pearl is aragonite. Pearls are formed by a mollusk consisting of the same material (called nacre, or mother-of-pearl) as the mollusk's shell. It is a highly valued gemstone. The shell-secreting cells of the mollusk are located in the mantle of its body. When a foreign particle penetrates the mantle, the cells attach to the particle and build up more or less concentric layers of pearl around it. Irregularly shaped pearls called baroque pearls are those that have grown in muscular tissue. Pearls that grow adjacent to the shell are often flat on one side and are called blister pearls. Pearls are characterized by their translucence and lustre and by a delicate play of surface colour called orient. The more perfect its shape (spherical or drop like) and the deeper its lustre, the greater its value. Only those pearls produced by mollusks whose shells are lined with mother-of-pearl (e.g., certain species of both saltwater oysters and freshwater clams) are really fine pearls. Pearls from other mollusks are reddish or whitish, porcellaneous, or lacking in pearly lustre. The surface of a pearl is rough to the touch. Pearls come in a wide range of sizes. Those weighing less than 1/4 grain (1 pearl grain = 50 milligrams = 1/4 carat) are called seed pearls. The largest naturally occurring pearls are the baroque pearls; one such pearl is known to have weighed 1,860 grains. Cultured pearl is natural but cultivated pearl produced by a mollusk after the intentional introduction of a foreign object inside the creature's shell. Birthstone: Pearl and cultured pearl along with alexandrite and moonstone are birthstones of Gemini (Twins): May 21 - June 21. Wedding anniversary: Freshwater Pearl is the anniversary gemstone for the 1st year of marriage; Pearl is the anniversary gemstone for the 12th and 30th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Pearls are less durable than most gems. They are sensitive to acids, dryness, and humidity. If you wear cosmetics, perfume or a hair spray, put these on before wearing your pearl jewelry. When taking off your pearls, wipe them with a dry, lint-free cloth. If needed, clean your pearls with warm soapy water being very careful to not get water into the drill hole as the pearl may discolour. Dry your pearls flat on an absorbent soft (preferably lint-free) towel. The price of pearls vary widely as a result of lustre, size, how they were grown, colour and type. Natural pearls are the most expensive, followed by cultured pearls. Fresh water pearls tend to be relatively inexpensive. Healing ability: Pearls eliminate emotional imbalances. They help one master the heart chakra, aid stomach, spleen, intestinal tract & ulcer problems. Mystical power: Pearl is said to help one see them and help improve self-worth. As an emblem of modesty, chastity and purity, the pearl symbolizes love, success, and happiness.
Peridot: It's a symbol of fame, dignity, and protection. Stone's names: Peridot, Chrysolite (golden yellow peridot). Colour: Peridot is a stone with a sparkling pale green colour. It occurs in lime, yellowish green, olive green or medium dark green hues. Description: Magnesium iron silicate Peridot, also called precious olivine, is a gem-quality transparent green olivine. The crystals of peridot have a vitreous lustre andconchoidal fracture. Gem-quality olivine is a mineral that composes a lot of the earth's mantle, the layer below the crust. It isalso common in basalts on the moon. Birthstone: Peridot along with sardonyx is birthstones of Leo (Lion): July. 23 - Aug. 22. Wedding anniversary: Period is the anniversary gemstone for the 16th year of marriage. Varieties: Chrysolite is a golden yellow variety of peridot. Care and treatment: As with all gems, protect peridot from scratches and sharp blows. Also avoid drastic temperature changes. Do not clean peridot in a home ultrasonic cleaner. Healing ability: This beautiful stone is worn or carried for general healing purposes. Peridot increases strength & physicalvitality. Period protects against nervousness and aids in healing hurt feelings. It helps liver & adrenal function. Period is alsothought to protect lungs, sinuses, and wrists from illness and injury. Mystical power: Period is used to help dreams become a reality. This very popular stone is believed to attract love. The deepgreen hue of the peridot also suggests a connection in wealth-attracting. Peridot calms a raging anger. It is also useful to dispel negative emotions, and it is believed to promote sleep when worn to bed.
Pewter: It is an alloy consisting of mostly tin and it is the fourth most precious metal. It also has very small amounts of antimonyand copper which is added mainly for strength and/or colour. The percentage of tin is at the least 91% and the rest in antimonyand copper. Nowadays the modern quality pewter is nickel and lead free. Pewter jewelry is a fantastic and very popular elegant unique form of jewelry. Most pewter jewelry pieces are made by handdue the consistency of pewter allowing the material to be easily worked. Being hand created it allows each individual piece of pewter jewelry to be unique making sure you have a fantastic piece of jewelry carefully created by skilled jewelry makers. Pewter jewelry can be polished to a fantastic shine or left to show theoriginal colour of the workings, both methods allow for two very different designs.
Platinum: Platinum is white in appearance and compliments diamonds particularly well. Platinum is a very dense and strong metal. Platinum jewelry will easily outlast gold and silver pieces but it will be much heavier than titanium jewelry. Platinum jewelry is usually 95% pure platinum with other metals added to improve the shine and luster of the final piece. Platinum jewelry is usually marked with a number between 800 and 1000. This number correlates to the percentage of platinum used in the metal with 800 being 80% and 1000 being 100%. Pieces with a rating of 95% and higher are often simply referred to as 'platinum' When to buy Platinum Jewelry? Platinum is a precious metal and very rare which is why it is considered a prestige option. Providing your budget can afford it and you like its color it is more desirable than gold and silver and will also require less maintenance. It is heavier than other metals but some prefer the weightier feeling. Platinum jewelry will not fade in color.
Prong Setting: A prong setting, sometimes called a claw setting, is the most commonly used gemstone setting and is especially popular to display solitaire engagement rings. To create a prong setting, a gem is inserted into three or more metal prongs that form a basket-like base. The ends of the prongs are bent over and shaped so that they rest against the gem to hold it snugly in place. The visible prong ends are often rounded, but they can be shaped into ovals, points, V-shapes, left flat or even formed into decorative shapes.
Reconstructed Gemstones: It is a mixture of the natural crushed natural gems, mineral additives and strong acrylic resins to provide an interesting and inexpensive alternative to its natural, costly counterpart.
Red-Rose-Pink Gold: Rose gold is a gold and copper alloy widely used for specialized jewelry. It is also known as pink gold and red gold. Although the names are often used interchangeably, the difference between red, rose, and pink gold is the copper content-the higher the copper content, the stronger the red coloration. A common alloy for rose gold is 75% gold and 25% copper by mass (18 karat). A common formulation for red gold is 50% gold and 50% copper.
Rhodium Plated: Rhodium is the rarest and most expensive of all metals used in jewelry. Less than 3 tones of Rhodium is mined each year. 24 carat gold jewelry is considered expensive by most people. A Rhodium piece constructed in exactly the same manner would cost approximately 10 times as much. Rhodium is still commonly used in jewelry but almost entirely as protective plating on gold and silver pieces. Rhodium is extremely hard, has a beautiful lustre and will virtually eliminate tarnish. Silver jewelry which is plated in Rhodium is often referred to as 'anti-tarnish' silver. Jewelry which has Rhodium plating will appear brighter and last longer in a better condition than an equivalent piece. Rhodium finishing is relatively common and now quite affordable. The only downside to Rhodium plating is that is usually only available on White Gold and Silver pieces due to its white appearance.
Ruby: Ruby is the red variety of the mineral corundum, one of the hardest minerals on Earth, of which the sapphire is also a variety. Pure corundum is colourless. Slight traces of elements such as chrome, iron, titanium or vanadium are responsible for the colour. These gemstones have excellent hardness. On the Mohs scale their score of 9 is second only to that of the diamond. Only red corundum is entitled to be called ruby, all other colours being classified as sapphires. There is well known close relationship between the ruby and the sapphire. Which colour would you spontaneously associate with love and vivacity, passion and power? It's obvious, isn't it? Red. Red is the colour of love. It radiates warmth and a strong sense of vitality. And red is also the colour of the ruby, the king of the gemstones. In the fascinating world of gemstones, the ruby is the undisputed ruler. For thousands of years, the ruby has been considered one of the most valuable gemstones on Earth. It has everything a precious stone should have: magnificent colour, excellent hardness and outstanding brilliance. In addition to that, it is an extremely rare gemstone, especially in its finer qualities. Ruby, this magnificent red variety from the multi-coloured corundum family, consists of aluminum oxide and chrome as well as very fine traces of other elements - depending on which deposit it was from. In really fine colours and good clarity, however, this gemstone occurs only very rarely in the world's mines. Somewhat paradoxically, it is actually the colouring element chrome which is responsible for this scarcity. True enough, millions of years ago, when the gemstones were being created deep inside the core of the Earth, chrome was the element which gave the ruby its wonderful colour. But at the same time it was also responsible for causing a multitude of fissures and cracks inside the crystals. Thus only very few ruby crystals were given the good conditions in which they could grow undisturbed to considerable sizes and crystallize to form perfect gemstones. For this reason, rubies of more than 3 carats in size are very rare. So it is no wonder that rubies with hardly any inclusions are so valuable that in good colours and larger sizes they achieve top prices at auctions, surpassing even those paid for diamonds in the same category. Some rubies display a wonderful silky shine, the so-called 'silk' of the ruby. This phenomenon is caused by very fine needles of rutile. And now and then one of the rare star rubies is found. Here too, the mineral rutile is involved: having formed a star-shaped deposit within the ruby, it causes a captivating light effect known by the experts as asterism. If rubies of this kind are cut as half-dome shaped cabochons, the result is a six-spoked star which seems to glide magically across the surface of the stone when the latter is moved. Star rubies are precious rarities. Their value depends on the beauty and attractiveness of the colour and, though only to a lesser extent, on their transparency. Fine star rubies, however, should always display rays which are fully formed all the way to the imaginary horizontal line which runs through the middle of the stone, and the star itself should be situated right in the centre. Ruby-red means passion red for ruby. Ruby-red. The most important thing about this precious stone is its colour. It was not for no reason that the name 'ruby' was derived from the Latin word 'rubens', meaning 'red'. The red of the ruby is incomparable: warm and fiery. Two magical elements are associated with the symbolism of this colour: fire and blood, implying warmth and life for mankind. So ruby-red is not just any old colour, no, it is absolutely undiluted, hot, passionate, powerful colour. Like no other gemstone, the ruby is the perfect way to express powerful feelings. Instead of symbolizing a calm, controlled affection, a ring set with a precious ruby bears witness to that passionate, unbridled love that people can feel for each other.
Sapphire: The sapphire belongs to the corundum group, the members of which are characterized by their excellent hardness (9 on the Mohs scale). Indeed their hardness is exceeded only by that of the diamond-and the diamond is the hardest mineral on Earth! Thanks to that hardness, sapphires are easy to look after, requiring no more than the usual care on the part of the wearer. The gemstones in the corundum group consist of pure aluminum oxide which crystallised into wonderful gemstones a long time ago as a result of pressure and heat at a great depth. The presence of small amounts of other elements, especially iron and chrome, are responsible for the colouring, turning a crystal that was basically white into a blue, red, yellow, pink or greenish sapphire. However, this does not mean that every corundum is also a sapphire. For centuries there were differences of opinion among the specialists as to which stones deserved to be called sapphires. Finally, it was agreed that the ruby-red ones, coloured by chrome, should be called 'rubies' and all those which were not ruby-red 'sapphires'. Blue is the main colour of the sapphire. We associate this colour, strongly linked to the sapphire as it is, with feelings of sympathy and harmony, friendship and loyalty: feelings which belong to qualities that prove their worth in the long term-feelings in which it is not so much effervescent passion that is to the fore, but rather composure, mutual understanding and indestructible trust. Thus the blue of the sapphire has become a colour which fits in with everything that is constant and reliable. That is one of the reasons why women in many countries wish for a sapphire ring on their engagement. The sapphire symbolizes loyalty, but at the same time it gives expression to people's love and longing. What makes the sapphire so fancy? It's beauty, its magnificent colours, its transparency, but also its constancy and durability are qualities associated with this gemstone by gemstone lovers and specialists alike. If there is talk of the sapphire, most gemstone people think immediately of a velvety blue. It's a versatile colour that becomes many wearers. A blue sapphire fits in best with a well balanced lifestyle in which reliability and temperament run together and there is always a readiness to encounter things new-as with the woman who wears it. The fact that this magnificent gemstone also comes in a large number of other colours was known for a long time almost only to insiders. In the trade, sapphires which are not blue are referred to as 'fancies'. In order to make it easier to differentiate between them, they are referred to not only by their gemstone name but also by a description of their colour. In other words, fancy sapphires are described as yellow, purple, pink, green or white sapphires. Fancy sapphires are pure individualism and are just made for lovers of individualistic coloured stone jewelry. They are currently available in a positively enchanting variety of designs - as ring stones, necklace pendants or ear jewelry, as solitaires, strung elegantly together or as sparkling pavé. However, the sapphire has yet more surprises in store. For example there is an orange variety. There are said to have been gemstone lovers who fell in love with these sapphire rarities for all time. And indeed the permanence of relationships is one of the features that are said to belong to this gemstone.
Silver Fill: It is made by using heat and pressure to apply a layer of .925 sterling or finer silver to a base of less costly metal. This produces a surface of sterling silver or fine silver. There are no industry standards yet for silver fill, but the silver-filled components Rings & Things carries are at least 1/20th silver by weight. This is hundreds of times thicker than a silver plating Silver fill is 100's of times thicker than silver plating.
Silver Plate: It's a thin surface layer of silver colour or actual silver. It nicely matches the colour of sterling silver. Like sterling silver, silver plate can tarnish. For this reason, it's frequently lacquered to prevent tarnish (until the lacquer wears off).
Stainless Steel: Stainless steel is slightly similar in appearance to silver. It is harder than silver and will not tarnish which is why it is increasingly used in jewelry. White gold and sterling silver pieces often contain a metal called 'nickel' which can cause allergic reactions in some people. Stainless jewelry can be (but is not always) made without nickel making it suitable for those allergic to nickel. Depending upon the shape and type of jewelry stainless steel may be more difficult and hence more expensive than a corresponding piece of silver jewelry. Stainless jewelry does not have the same lustre or shine as other metals but some prefer its slightly more metallic appearance and it is particularly popular amongst men. Stainless steel jewelry is more jewelry than gold and silver pieces and will not tarnish or rust as easily.
Spinel: Is a magnesium aluminum oxide, a mineral crystallizing in the isometric system, usually as octahedrons. It occurs as an accessory mineral in basic igneous rocks, in aluminum-rich metamorphic rocks, and in contact-metamorphosed limestones. Common spinel usually ranges in color from dark green to brown or black, but transparent red, blue, and green varieties are found and are used as gemstones. Now, treasured for its own sake, spinel is a favourite of gem dealers and collectors on account of its brilliance, hardness and wide range of spectacular colours. In addition to beautiful rich reds, spinel can be found in a range of gorgeous pastel shades of pink and purple. Of particular interest is a vivid hot pink with a tinge of orange mined in Burma. It is one of the most spectacular gemstone colours seen in any species at all. Spinel also comes in beautiful blue tones called cobalt spinel, but these are very, very rare. Spinel is the great impostor of gemstone history: many famous rubies in crown jewels around the world are actually spinels :) Much gem-quality spinel is now produced synthetically. Synthetic spinel has been manufactured since the early 20th century for use as imitation gem stones, as sapphires and especially as rubies. It was first produced accidentally during an attempt to make a satisfactory blue synthetic sapphire by the Verneuil process. The addition of cobalt oxide, which seemed a logical source for the blue sapphire, was found to give a very uneven coloration.
Swarovski Crystals: They are made of the finest quality materials and are considered by some to be the finest crystal today. What makes these crystals different from all others is that the lead oxide level is a minimum of thirty two percent. When thislevel of lead oxide is used, it makes the crystals transparency very clear. Highly skilled craftsmen then create prisms and add radiant colours in layers. From these prisms, incredible pendants andspectacular jewelry is created. There is no other crystal that can compare to a Swarovski crystal. Daniel Swarovski founded the Swarovski Company. Daniel was born in Bohemia in 1862, and was fascinated by the industrial erato which he was born. After experimenting with electricity and glass blowing, Swarovski then built a machine that was able to cutand polish glass mechanically. He patented this machine and went into mass production. This machine gave the Swarovski Companya great advantage over their competitors. Millions of people believe in the healing powers of crystals. For people who suffer fromstress arthritis or joint disease, wearing Swarovski crystal jewelry bring a level of relieve that cannot be explained. They arealso believed to relieve the symptoms of poison oak, ivy, and sumac. It is also believed that crystals can ease the symptoms ofemotional illness such as depression. Swarovski are the most sought after crystals in the world today because of their beautyand versatility. No matter what the reason for purchase, these crystals accent everything that they are attached to. This was the beginning of what was to become the most famous crystal company in the world.
Synthetic Pearl or Artificial Pearl or Imitation Pearl or Shell Pearl: Synthetic Pearl or Artificial Pearl or Imitation Pearl or Shell Pearl: All terms are synonyms and means man-made. The shell pearl is laboratory made from the shell of an oyster. The process of making a shell pearl involves several different stages. The raw material for the base of the pearl is the sea shell, which is coated and polished to the final shape of the pearl. In fact, the materials used in order to make shell pearls are the same materials from which cultured pearls are made. Why shell pearls are a better choice? There are a lot of reasons why many pearls lovers all over the world prefer buying shell pearls. The first one is their price. Wearing pearls is no longer the privilege of those of means, the shell pearl is an affordable product for every pocket. The range of prices varies of course, and some shell pearls are expensive as a result of their excellent quality, but comparatively speaking shell pearls are still much easier and cheaper to buy. The second reason is the quality of the shell pearl. The rarity of the cultural pearl not only makes it expensive, but also makes it hard to find in perfect shape and size. The manual production of the shell pearl enables the manufacturer to determine the shape, size, and colour of the pearl, thus making the final result seem perfect. The modern technology of pearl production can also assure its durability. The shell pearl will always keep its shine and colour, and will not be affected by sweat, perfume or detergents. The pearl in its marketing form is a result of a long process of shaping and coating, and intensive quality control inspection. Another reason for purchasing this product is the possibility of controlling its shape and colour. This means the client is able to choose between different colours and shapes, and buy the one which suits his/her taste the best. This also means the manufacturer is able to offer a whole new world of colours and shapes, which are not to be found in cultured pearls.
Tiger's Eye: It is quartz that contains oriented fibers of crocidolite that have been replaced by silica.Tiger eye is displaying chatoyancy (a vertical luminescent band like that of a cat's eye) . Tiger eye typically has lustrous alternating yellow or brown bands.Tiger eye has rich yellow and golden brown stripes, with a fine golden lustre when polished. Wedding anniversary: Tiger Eye is the anniversary gemstone for the 9th year of marriage. Varieties: Hawk's-eye is similar to tiger eye, except that the crocidolite was replaced by quartz before altering to iron oxide. It therefore retains the gray-blue or green of the asbestos. Care and treatment: As with all gems, protect tiger eye from scratches and sharp blows. Also avoid large temperature changes. Tiger Eye is widely used in pendant and beads where it's lovely tiger-like peculiarity displays out best. Healing ability: Tiger eye relieves high blood pressure. Tiger eye wear is very helpful in the presence of following diseases: bronchial asthma, kidney, rheumatic heart disease, otitis and psoriasis. Mystical power: Tiger Eye is used for focusing the mind. It is said that Tiger Eye offers protection during travel, strengthens convictions and confidence. This very warm stone is beneficial for the weak and sick.
Titanium: Easily the strongest of all metals used in jewelry. Titanium is available in a number of colors dependent upon the anodizing process used to create the piece. Titanium is very low maintenance and robust and will outlast all other types of jewelry. Titanium is also extremely light. These reasons combine to make it very popular among new types of jewelry. Unfortunately it is still quite expensive due mostly to the processes required to produce titanium jewelry.
Topaz: The stone of strength. It's a silicate mineral that is formed from fluorine and aluminum. Topaz is available in a number of varieties and colours. Each hasits different properties and the colours are usually affected by the impurities present within the stone. Topaz in its purest formis actually without colour and transparent. The most common varieties include topaz in colours such as pale gray, wine, bluish brown, reddish orange and yellow. The Yellow Topaz is said to express feelings of love and camaraderie and it is symbolic of a person's ability to having loving, communicative and strong interpersonal relationships. As a result, the stone is a symbol of friendship and love and is a populargift. Imperial Topaz: Gold, pale green, blue and white are also common colours while pink is one of the rarest. Blue topaz is very rare. Mystic Topaz is a popular variety that has to be covered with an artificial layer to provide it with the popular rainbow effect. Healing ability: As a special crystal Topaz is said to have a number ofeffects on people including: -Relieving eye strain and strengthening sight, detoxifying the body of toxins -Provide warmth to the body -Provide relief from swellings and pain caused by rheumatism and arthritis -Providing feels of contentment and calm -Increase spiritual awareness and self-awareness -Inspire inter-communication Mystical power: Topaz balances emotions and calms passions. It releases tension and gives feelings of joy. Topaz is known asspiritual rejuvenation gemstone.
Tourmaline: It is borosilicate mineral of complex and variable composition. Tourmaline is very abundant and has the best-developed crystals in pegmatites and in metamorphosed limestone in contact with granitic magmas. Tourmaline brings tranquility and serenity into your life. Color: Tourmaline comes in many colors such as blue, yellow, pink, red, black, green and clear. Green is from iron, chromium and vanadium, pink from manganese. Some crystals are pink at one end and green at the other.The colored varieties, when transparent and free from flaws, are cut as gems.Another peculiarity of tourmaline is that crystal when heated acquires an electric charge and attracts small objects such as hair or small pieces of paper. Rubbing crystal imparts a similar charge. Birthstone: Tourmaline along with opal is birthstones of Libra (Balance): Sept. 23 - Oct. 23. Wedding anniversary: Multicolored Tourmaline is the anniversary gemstone for the 8th year of marriage. Varieties: Three types of tourmaline, distinguished by the predominance of certain elements, are usually recognized: iron tourmaline (schorl), black in color;magnesium tourmaline (dravite), brown;alkali tourmaline, which may be pink (rubellite), green (Brazilian emerald), or colorless (achroite). Care and treatment: As with all gems, protect tourmaline from scratches and sharp blows. Avoid drastic temperature changes. Do not clean tourmaline in a home ultrasonic cleaner. Tourmaline is beautiful in rings, necklaces, and pendants. Healing ability: Tourmaline calms nerves, regulates hormones, fights against genetic disorders. Tourmaline induces a tranquil sleep. School: relieves arthritis pain, helps fighting heart diseases. Mystical power: Tourmaline is said to dispel fear, negativity and grief. According to legend, the tourmaline of all colors protects the wearer against many dangers and misfortune.
Tungsten: Tungsten jewelry is also often referred to as 'Tungsten Carbide' but you should pay special attention to ensure the tungsten jewelry you are purchasing is actually 'Tungsten Carbide'. Tungsten Carbide is compound of Tungsten and Carbon which results in a metal which is significantly hard than just Tungsten. How hard is Tungsten Carbide? Well just about the only thing capable of scratching Tungsten Carbide is Diamond. Tungsten which has been polished will never need to be polished again and will be next to impossible to scratch. Tungsten is 4 times hard than any other metal currently used to manufacture jewelry and so it will outlast jest about everything. Tungsten is quite heavy and only available in a grey 'carbon like' color which is popular amongst men. Due to the expensive manufacturing processes there is currently very little Tungsten jewelry to choose from. The majority of Tungsten jewelry available today is designed for men and usually only available as wedding rings. When to buy Tungsten Jewelry? Looking for something which will look new and won't scratch for the remainder of your lifetime? If you like its color, have found something in the limited range available and your budget permits Tungsten is a great choice. A number of pendants and charms and even bracelets are now available in Tungsten with more styles and designs entering the market daily.
Turquoise: It brings happiness and good fortune. Colour: The colour of turquoise ranges from sky blue through various shades of green to greenish and yellowish gray. Turquoise is opaque except in the thinnest splinters, and has a feeble, faintly waxy lustre. Description: Turquoise, hydrated copper and aluminum phosphate that is extensively used as agemstone. Turquoise is a secondary mineral deposited from circulating waters, and it occurs chiefly as an opaque, granular veinrunning through a host rock. Birthstone: Turquoise along with zircon is birthstones of Sagittarius (Archer): Nov. 22-Dec. 21. Wedding anniversary: Turquoise is the anniversary gemstone for the 5th year of marriage. Care and treatment: The stone's colour and lustre tend to deteriorate with exposure to sunlight, heat, or various weak acids. Avoid hot water and household chemicals. Turquoise is relatively soft so avoid scratches and sharp blows. Make sure certaincoatings are not removed. Healing ability: Turquoise is said to be a guard against all diseases. It assists in tissue regeneration, subtle body alignment &strengthening. Mystical power: Turquoise has been thought to warn the wearer of danger or illness by changing colour. In the 13thcentury, turquoise was thought to protect the wearer from falling, especially from horses. Turquoise is also believed to bring happiness and good fortune to all. It's said that turquoise attracts healing spirits, making it apremier healing stone. Believed to be a protective stone, turquoise is worn to guard against violence and accidents. Turquoise is also a valuable amuletfor travelers.
White Gold: It is an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, usually nickel, manganese or palladium. Like yellow gold, the purity of white gold is given in karats. White gold's properties vary depending on the metals and proportions used. As a result, white gold alloys can be used for many different purposes; while a nickel alloy is hard and strong and therefore good for rings and pins, gold-palladium alloys are soft, pliable and good for white gold gemstone settings, sometimes with other metals like copper, silver, and platinum for weight and durability, although this often requires specialized goldsmiths. The term white gold is used very loosely in the industry to describe karat gold alloys with a whitish hue. Many believe that the color of the rhodium plating, which is seen on many commercial pieces, is actually the color of white gold. The term "white" covers a large spectrum of colors that borders or overlaps pale yellow, tinted brown and even very pale rose. The jewelry industry often hides these off-white colors by rhodium plating. A common white gold formulation consists of 90 wt. % gold and 10 wt.% nickel. Copper can be added to increase malleability. The strength of gold-nickel-copper alloys is caused by formation of two phases, a gold-rich Au-Cu, and a nickel-rich Ni-Cu, and the resulting hardening of the material. The alloys used in jewelry industry are gold-palladium-silver and gold-nickel-copper-zinc. Palladium and nickel act as primary bleaching agents for gold; zinc acts as a secondary bleaching agent to attenuate the color of copper.
Zircon: Description: It is a silicate mineral, zirconium silicate. Zircon is known as a colorless stone used to imitate diamonds, but also comes in: blue, yellow, orange, red, brown and green. The high refractive index and dispersion of zircon cause it to approach diamond in fire and brilliancy. Zircon is widespread as an accessory mineral in acid igneous rocks, it also occurs in metamorphic rocks and, fairly often, in detrital deposits. Birthstone: Zircon along with turquoise is birthstones of Sagittarius (Archer): Nov. 22-Dec. 21. Varieties: Zircon is quite widely used in its three varieties. The first variety is called jacinth (also spelled hyacinth) and was used to a great extent in classical antiquity. It occurs in the clear, transparent red, orange, and yellow colors. The blue variety is called starlite or Siam Zircon, while the third colorless variety is called Ceylon or Matura diamond. Care and treatment: Zircon will chip and crack rather easily though it has a hardness rating of 7. As with all gems, protect zircon from scratches and sharp blows. Avoid hot water, sudden temperature changes and household chemicals. Store jewelry made of zircon in separate boxes. From the stone history: Zircon has been around in jewelry for hundreds of years. It is known for its high dispersion and for many years was used to imitate diamonds. Shopping guide: Be aware of colorless glass and synthetic spinel zircon imitations. Healing ability: Zircon relieves pain. It is said to whet one's appetite. Zircon also prevents nightmares and ensures a deep tranquil sleep. Mystical power: Zircon supposedly helps one be more at peace with oneself. Zircon is believed to provide the wearer with wisdom, honor and riches. The lost of luster on a Zircon stone is said to warn of danger. Jacinth helps rising one's self-esteem.
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