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Details about  1696 CROWN Soild Silver Coin Antique Georgian Royal Mint Antique British English

1696 CROWN Soild Silver Coin Antique Georgian Royal Mint Antique British English

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Item Information

Item condition:
--not specified

Please see photos to judge condition for yourself

Ended:
Jul 06, 2014 16:08:01 EDT
Winning bid:
GBP 26.00
shipping
Approximately C $47.38(including shipping)
24 bids ]
 
 
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Item specifics

Seller Notes: Please see photos to judge condition for yourself
Era:

Early Milled (c.1662-1816)

Collections/ Bulk Lots:

1697 Crown from York Mint

Denomination:

Crown

Year of Issue:

1697

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1697 Crown
Minted at Royal Mint
 
*** OVER 300 Years Old ***

Three hundred and eighteen year old Engllish Crown Coin from 1697

It is 40mm in diameter


I have a crown, half crown, shilling and sixpence on ebay now from this era. Please CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP

From the reign of William III & Mary II House of Stuart

O      Willia III Laureated and draped bust of William III right, first bust
GVLIELMVS· III·DEI·GRA·
R      Crowned shields with arms of England, Scotland, Ireland and France, Lion of Orange-Nassau in center
date ·MAG BR·FRA· ET·HIB· REX·

William III was the posthumous son of King James II of England

BECAUSE OF THEIR PROTESTANT BELIEFS AND WILLIAM'S POWERFUL POSITION AS PRINCE OF ORANGE AND STADTHOLDER OF THE NETHERLANDS, THEYÂ SWIFTLY OVERTHREW JAMES IN 1688 AND RULED THE KINGDOM JOINTLY.

THEIR REIGN BROUGHT ABOUT BY "THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION" ALSO ENDED THE IDEA OF ABSOLUTISM IN BRITAIN.


Solid 0.925 Silver

It is in good condition for its age almost 200 years old
Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake
 
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Coins are pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government.
Coins are usually metal or alloy metal, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes: these coins are usually worth less than banknotes: usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation. If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, or the general public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law).
Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of silver or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, and the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. The American Gold Eagle has a face value of US$50, and the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins also have nominal (purely symbolic) face values (e.g. C$50 for 1 oz.); but the Krugerrand does not.
Historically, a great quantity of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials (e.g. porcelain) have been used to produce coins for circulation, collection, and metal investment: bullion coins often serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion.[1]
Today, the term coin can also be used in reference to digital currencies which are not issued by a state. As of 2013, examples include BitCoin and LiteCoin, among others.
As coins have long been used as money, in some languages the same word is used for "coin" and "currency".

Numismatics
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The first coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, India & China around 600-700 BC. Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.[2]
Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire. Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius). Ancient and early medieval coins in theory had the value of their metal content, although there have been many instances throughout history of the metal content of coins being debased, so that the inferior coins were worth less in metal than their face value. Fiat money first arose in medieval China, with the jiaozi paper money. Early paper money was introduced in Europe in the later Middle Ages, but some coins continued to have the value of the gold or silver they contained throughout the Early Modern period. The penny was mint (coin)ed as a silver coin until the 17th century. The first copper pennies were minted in the United States in the 1790s.[3][citation needed] Silver content was reduced in many coins in the 19th century (use of billon), and the first coins made entirely of base metal (e.g. nickel, cupronickel, aluminium bronze), representing values higher than the value of their metal, were minted in the mid 19th century.
Bronze Age predecessors[edit]

 

 An Oxhide ingot from Crete. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an "ox-hide", suggesting that they represented standardized values.
Coins were an evolution of "currency" systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, and tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made, such as those discovered in a tomb near Anyang.[4][5] These were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese money, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell.[6][7][8] These, as well as later Chinese bronzes, were replicas of knives, spades, and hoes, but not "coins" in the narrow sense, as they did not carry a mark or marks certifying them to be of a definite exchange value.[9]
Iron Age[edit]
Further information: Archaic period of ancient Greek coinage

 

 1/3rd stater from Lydia, 6th century BC.
 

Electrum coin from Ephesus, 620-600 BC. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch.
 

 Anatolian gold coin from 4th century BC Mysia.
 

 Greek drachma of Aegina. Obverse: Land Chelone / Reverse: ΑΙΓ(INA) and dolphin. The oldest Aegina Chelone coins depicted sea turtles and were minted ca. 700 BC.[10]
The earliest coins are mostly associated with Iron Age Anatolia, especially with the kingdom of Lydia.[11] Early electrum coins were not standardized in weight, and in their earliest stage may have been ritual objects, such as badges or medals, issued by priests.[12] Many early Lydian and Greek coins were minted under the authority of private individuals and are thus more akin to tokens or badges than to modern coins,[13] though due to their numbers it is evident that some were official state issues, with King Alyattes of Lydia being a frequently mentioned originator of coinage.[14]
The first Lydian coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold that was further alloyed with added silver and copper.[15] Most of the early Lydian coins include no writing ("legend" or "inscription"), only an image of a symbolic animal. Therefore the dating of these coins relies primarily on archaeological evidence, with the most commonly cited evidence coming from excavations at the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, also called the Ephesian Artemision (which would later evolve into one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World). Because the oldest lion head "coins" were discovered in that temple, and they do not appear to have been used in commerce, these objects may not have been coins but badges or medals issued by the priests of that temple. Anatolian Artemis was the Πὀτνια Θηρῶν (Potnia Thêrôn, "Mistress of Animals"), whose symbol was the stag.
A small percentage of early Lydian/Greek coins have a legend.[16] A famous early electrum coin, the most ancient inscribed coin at present known, is from nearby Caria. This coin has a Greek legend reading phaenos emi sema [17] interpreted variously as "I am the badge of Phanes", or "I am the sign of light",[18] or "I am the tomb of light", or "I am the tomb of Phanes". The coins of Phanes are known to be amongst the earliest of Greek coins, a hemihekte of the issue was found in the foundation deposit of the temple of Artemis at Ephesos (the oldest deposit of electrum coins discovered). One assumption is that Phanes was a wealthy merchant, another that this coin is associated with Apollo-Phanes and, due to the Deer, with Artemis (twin sister of the god of light Apollo-Phaneos). Although only seven Phanes type coins were discovered, it is also notable that 20% of all early electrum coins also have the lion of Artemis and the sun burst of Apollo-Phaneos. Alternatively, Phanes may have been the Halicarnassian mercenary of Amasis mentioned by Herodotus, who escaped to the court of Cambyses, and became his guide in the invasion of Egypt in 527 or 525 BC. According to Herodotus, this Phanes was buried alive by a sandstorm, together with 50,000 Persian soldiers, while trying to conquer the temple of Amun–Zeus in Egypt.[19] The fact that the Greek word "Phanes" also means light (or lamp), and the word "sema" also means tomb makes this coin a famous and controversial one.[20]
Another candidate for the site of the earliest coins is Aegina, where Chelone ("turtle") coins were first minted on 700 BC,[21] either by the local Aegina people or by Pheidon king of Argos (who first set the standards of weights and measures). In the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, there is a unique electrum stater of Aegina.[10][22][unreliable source?]
Coins from Athens and Corinth appeared shortly thereafter, known to exist at least since the late 6th century BC.[23]
Classical Antiquity[edit]
Further information: Ancient Greek coinage, Achaemenid coinage, Illyrian coinage, Roman currency, Coinage of India, Aureus, Solidus (coin), Denarius, and Antoninianus

 

 Set of three roman aurei depicting the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Top to bottom: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. 69-96 AD.
Coinage followed Greek colonization and influence first around the Mediterranean and soon after to North Africa (including Egypt), Syria, Persia, and the Balkans.[24]
Coins were minted in the Achaemenid Empire, including the gold darics and silver sigloi. and with the Achemenid conquest of Gandhara under Darius the Great ca. 520 BC, the practice spread to the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The coins of this period were called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana.[25] These earliest Indian coins, however, are unlike those circulated in Persia, which were derived from the Greek/Anatolian type; they not disk-shaped but rather stamped bars of metal, suggesting that the innovation of stamped currency was added to a pre-existing form of token currency which had already been present in the Mahajanapada kingdoms of the Indian Iron Age. Mahajanapadas that minted their own coins included Gandhara, Kuntala, Kuru, Panchala, Shakya, Surasena and Surashtra.[26]
In China, early round coins appear in the 4th century BC.
The first Roman coins, which were crude, heavy cast bronzes, were issued ca. 289 B
Most coins presently are made of a base metal, and their value comes from their status as fiat money. This means that the value of the coin is decreed by government fiat (law), and thus is determined by the free market only inasmuch as national currencies are used in domestic trade and also traded internationally on foreign exchange markets. Thus these coins are monetary tokens, just as paper currency is: they are usually not backed by metal, but rather by some form of government guarantee. Some have suggested that such coins not be considered to be "true coins" (see below). Thus there is very little economic difference between notes and coins of equivalent face value.
Coins may be in circulation with fiat values lower than the value of their component metals, but they are never initially issued with such value, and the shortfall only arises over time due to inflation, as market values for the metal overtake the fiat declared face value of the coin. Examples are the pre-1965 US dime, quarter, half dollar, and dollar, US nickel, and pre-1982 US penny. As a result of the increase in the value of copper, the United States greatly reduced the amount of copper in each penny. Since mid-1982, United States pennies are made of 97.5% zinc, with the remaining 2.5% being a coating of copper. Extreme differences between fiat values and metal values of coins causes coins to be hoarded or removed from circulation by illicit smelters in order to realise the value of their metal content. This is an example of Gresham's law. The United States Mint, in an attempt to avoid this, implemented new interim rules on December 14, 2006, subject to public comment for 30 days, which criminalized the melting and export of pennies and nickels.[30] Violators can be fined up to $10,000 and/or imprisoned for up to five years.
A coin's value as a collector's item or as an investment generally depends on its condition, specific historical significance, rarity, quality/beauty of the design and general popularity with collectors. If a coin is greatly lacking in all of these, it is unlikely to be worth much. The value of bullion coins is also influenced to some extent by those factors, but is largely based on the value of their gold, silver, or platinum content. Sometimes non-monetized bullion coins such as the Canadian Maple Leaf and the American Gold Eagle are minted with nominal face values less than the value of the metal in them, but as such coins are never intended for circulation, these face values have no relevance.
Coins can be used as creative medium of expression – from fine art sculpture to the penny machines that can be found in most amusement parks. In the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in the United States there are some regulations specific to nickels and pennies that are informative on this topic. 31 CFR § 82.1 forbids unauthorized persons from exporting, melting, or treating any 5 or 1 cent coins.
This has been a particular problem with nickels and dimes (and with some comparable coins in other currencies) because of their relatively low face value and unstable commodity prices. For a while the copper in US pennies was worth more than one cent, so people would hoard pennies then melt them down for their metal value. It costs more than face value to manufacture pennies or nickels, so any widespread loss of the coins in circulation could be expensive for the Treasury. This was more of a problem when coins were still made of precious metals like silver and gold, so historically strict laws against alteration make more sense.
31 CFR § 82.2 goes on to state that: "(b) The prohibition contained in § 82.1 against the treatment of 5-cent coins and one-cent coins shall not apply to the treatment of these coins for educational, amusement, novelty, jewelry, and similar purposes as long as the volumes treated and the nature of the treatment makes it clear that such treatment is not intended as a means by which to profit solely from the value of the metal content of the coins."
Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world[1] with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population[2][3][4]) and covering 6.5 million square kilometers (2.5 million sq mi) during its height between the first and second centuries AD.[5][6][7]
In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, parts of Northern Europe, and parts of Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into "Classical Antiquity" together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.
The Romans are still remembered today, including names such as Julius Caesar, Cicero, and Augustus. Ancient Roman society contributed greatly to government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, society and more in the Western world. A civilization highly developed for its time, Rome professionalized and greatly expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics[8][9][10] such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as large monuments, palaces, and public facilities.
By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged under the leadership of Augustus Caesar. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a common ritual for a new emperor's rise.[11][12][13] States, such as Palmyra, temporarily divided the Empire in a third-century crisis. Soldier emperors reunified it, by dividing the empire between Western and Eastern halves.
Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-mediaeval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The Eastern Roman Empire survived this crisis and was governed from Constantinople after the division of the Empire. It comprised Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt. Despite the later loss of Syria and Egypt to the Arab-Islamic Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire continued for another millennium, until its remnants were annexed by the emerging Turkish Ottoman Empire. This eastern, Christian, medieval stage of the Empire is usually called the Byzantine Empire by historians.
 

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 Fauna ·
 Faunus ·
 Flora ·
 Genius ·
 Hercules ·
 Janus ·
 Juno ·
 Jupiter ·
 Lares ·
 Liber ·
 Mars ·
 Mercury ·
 Minerva ·
 Orcus ·
 Neptune ·
 Penates ·
 Pluto ·
 Pomona ·
 Priapus ·
 Proserpina ·
 Quirinus ·
 Saturn ·
 Silvanus ·
 Sol ·
 Venus ·
 Vesta ·
 Vulcan
 

She-wolf suckles Romulus and Remus.jpg
 
 
Abstract deities
Concordia ·
 Fides ·
 Fortuna ·
 Pietas ·
 Spes ·
 Roma ·
 Victoria ·
 Terra
 
 
Legendary founders
Aeneas ·
 Romulus and Remus ·
 Numa Pompilius ·
 Servius Tullius ·
 Ancus Marcius
 
 
Texts
Vergil  (Aeneid)
   ·
 Ovid  (Metamorphoses ·
 Fasti)
   ·
 Propertius ·
 Apuleius  (The Golden Ass)
 
 
 
Concepts and practices
Religion in ancient Rome ·
 Festivals ·
 interpretatio graeca ·
 Imperial cult ·
 Temples
 
 
See also
Glossary of ancient Roman religion ·
 Greek mythology ·
 myth and ritual ·
 classical mythology
 
 
 
[hide]
v ·
 t ·
 e
 
Ancient Greek and Roman wars
 
 
Wars of ancient Greece
Trojan War ·
 First Messenian War ·
 Second Messenian War ·
 Lelantine War ·
 Sicilian Wars ·
 Greco-Persian Wars ·
 Aeginetan War ·
 Wars of the Delian League ·
 Samian War ·
 Peloponnesian War ·
 Corinthian War ·
 Sacred Wars (First, Second, Third) ·
 Social War (357–355 BC) ·
 Rise of Macedon ·
 Wars of Alexander the Great ·
 Wars over Alexander's empire ·
 Lamian War ·
 Chremonidean War ·
 Cleomenean War ·
 Social War (220–217 BC) ·
 Cretan War ·
 Aetolian War ·
 War against Nabis ·
 Maccabean Revolt
 
 
Wars of the Roman Republic
Roman-Latin wars  (First Latin War  (Battle of Lake Regillus)
   ·
 Second Latin War)
   ·
 Samnite Wars ·
 Pyrrhic War ·
 Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) ·
 Macedonian Wars  (Illyrian ·
 First Macedonian ·
 Second Macedonian ·
 Seleucid ·
 Third Macedonian ·
 Fourth Macedonian)
   ·
 Jugurthine War ·
 Cimbrian War ·
 Roman Servile Wars  (First ·
 Second ·
 Third)
   ·
 Social War ·
 Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla  (First ·
 Second)
   ·
 Mithridatic Wars  (First ·
 Second ·
 Third)
   ·
 Gallic Wars ·
 Julius Caesar's civil war ·
 End of the Republic  (Post-Caesarian ·
 Liberators' ·
 Sicilian ·
 Fulvia's ·
 Final)
 
 
 
Wars of the Roman Empire
Germanic Wars  (Marcomannic ·
 Alamannic ·
 Gothic ·
 Visigothic)
   ·
 Wars in Britain ·
 Wars of Boudica ·
 Armenian War ·
 Civil War of 69 ·
 Jewish Wars ·
 Domitian's Dacian War ·
 Trajan's Dacian Wars ·
 Parthian Wars ·
 Roman–Persian Wars ·
 Civil Wars of the Third Century ·
 Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
 
 
Military history
 
 
 
[hide]
v ·
 t ·
 e
 
Roman emperors
 
 
Principate
 27 BC – 235 AD
Augustus ·
 Tiberius ·
 Caligula ·
 Claudius ·
 Nero ·
 Galba ·
 Otho ·
 Vitellius ·
 Vespasian ·
 Titus ·
 Domitian ·
 Nerva ·
 Trajan ·
 Hadrian ·
 Antoninus Pius ·
 Marcus Aurelius with Lucius Verus ·
 Commodus ·
 Pertinax ·
 Didius Julianus ·
 Septimius Severus ·
 Caracalla ·
 Geta ·
 Macrinus with Diadumenian ·
 Elagabalus ·
 Alexander Severus
 
 
Crisis
 235–284
Maximinus Thrax ·
 Gordian I and Gordian II ·
 Pupienus and Balbinus ·
 Gordian III ·
 Philip the Arab ·
 Decius with Herennius Etruscus ·
 Hostilian ·
 Trebonianus Gallus with Volusianus ·
 Aemilianus ·
 Valerian ·
 Gallienus with Saloninus ·
 Claudius Gothicus ·
 Quintillus ·
 Aurelian ·
 Tacitus ·
 Florianus ·
 Probus ·
 Carus ·
 Carinus ·
 Numerian
 
 
Dominate
 284–395
Diocletian ·
 Maximian ·
 Constantius Chlorus ·
 Galerius ·
 Severus ·
 Maxentius ·
 Maximinus Daia ·
 Licinius with Valerius Valens and Martinianus ·
 Constantine the Great ·
 Constantine II ·
 Constans I ·
 Constantius II with Vetranio ·
 Julian ·
 Jovian ·
 Valentinian I ·
 Valens ·
 Gratian ·
 Valentinian II ·
 Theodosius I
 
 
Western Empire
 395–480
Honorius with Constantine III ·
 Constantius III ·
 Joannes ·
 Valentinian III ·
 Petronius Maximus ·
 Avitus ·
 Majorian ·
 Libius Severus ·
 Anthemius ·
 Olybrius ·
 Glycerius ·
 Julius Nepos ·
 Romulus Augustulus
 
 
Eastern/
 Byzantine Empire
 395–1204
Arcadius ·
 Theodosius II ·
 Marcian ·
 Leo I the Thracian ·
 Leo II ·
 Zeno ·
 Basiliscus ·
 Anastasius I ·
 Justin I ·
 Justinian I ·
 Justin II ·
 Tiberius II Constantine ·
 Maurice ·
 Phocas ·
 Heraclius ·
 Constantine III ·
 Heraklonas ·
 Constans II ·
 Constantine IV ·
 Justinian II ·
 Leontios ·
 Tiberios III ·
 Philippikos ·
 Anastasios II ·
 Theodosios III ·
 Leo III the Isaurian ·
 Constantine V ·
 Artabasdos ·
 Leo IV the Khazar ·
 Constantine VI ·
 Irene ·
 Nikephoros I ·
 Staurakios ·
 Michael I Rangabe ·
 Leo V the Armenian ·
 Michael II the Amorian ·
 Theophilos ·
 Michael III ·
 Basil I the Macedonian ·
 Leo VI the Wise ·
 Alexander ·
 Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos ·
 Romanos I Lekapenos ·
 Romanos II ·
 Nikephoros II Phokas ·
 John I Tzimiskes ·
 Basil II ·
 Constantine VIII ·
 Zoe ·
 Romanos III Argyros ·
 Michael IV the Paphlagonian ·
 Michael V Kalaphates ·
 Constantine IX Monomachos ·
 Theodora ·
 Michael VI Bringas ·
 Isaac I Komnenos ·
 Constantine X Doukas ·
 Romanos IV Diogenes ·
 Michael VII Doukas ·
 Nikephoros III Botaneiates ·
 Alexios I Komnenos ·
 John II Komnenos ·
 Manuel I Komnenos ·
 Alexios II Komnenos ·
 Andronikos I Komnenos ·
 Isaac II Angelos ·
 Alexios III Angelos ·
 Alexios IV Angelos ·
 Alexios V Doukas
 
 
Empire of Nicaea
 1204–1261
Constantine Laskaris ·
 Theodore I Laskaris ·
 John III Doukas Vatatzes ·
 Theodore II Laskaris ·
 John IV Laskaris
 
 
Eastern/
 Byzantine Empire
 1261–1453
Michael VIII Palaiologos ·
 Andronikos II Palaiologos ·
 Michael IX Palaiologos ·
 Andronikos III Palaiologos ·
 John V Palaiologos ·
 John VI Kantakouzenos ·
 Matthew Kantakouzenos ·
 Andronikos IV Palaiologos ·
 John VII Palaiologos ·
 Andronikos V Palaiologos ·
 Manuel II Palaiologos ·
 John VIII Palaiologos ·
 Constantine XI Palaiologos
 
 
 
Ancient Greece was a Greek civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period[citation needed] of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era.[1] Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea.
Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean region and Europe, for which reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture.[
 
Ancient Greece
 
 
Outline ·
 Timeline
 
 
Periods
Cycladic civilization ·
 Minoan civilization ·
 Mycenaean civilization ·
 Greek Dark Ages ·
 Archaic period ·
 Classical Greece ·
 Hellenistic Greece ·
 Roman Greece
 
 
Geography
Aegean Sea ·
 Aeolis ·
 Alexandria ·
 Antioch ·
 Crete ·
 Cyprus ·
 Cappadocia ·
 Doris ·
 Hellespont ·
 Ephesus ·
 Epirus ·
 Ionian Sea ·
 Ionia ·
 Macedonia ·
 Magna Graecia ·
 Miletus ·
 Pergamon ·
 Peloponnesus ·
 Pontus ·
 Ancient Greek colonies
 
 
City states
Argos ·
 Athens ·
 Byzantium ·
 Chalkis ·
 Corinth ·
 Megalopolis ·
 Rhodes ·
 Syracuse ·
 Sparta ·
 Thebes
 
 
Politics
Athenian democracy  (Agora ·
 Areopagus ·
 Ecclesia ·
 Graphē paranómōn ·
 Heliaia ·
 Ostracism)
   ·
 Boeotarch ·
 Boule ·
 Koinon ·
 Proxeny ·
 Spartan Constitution  (Apella ·
 Ephor ·
 Gerousia ·
 Harmost)
   ·
 Strategos ·
 Synedrion ·
 Tagus ·
 Tyrant ·
 Amphictyonic League
 
 
Rulers
Kings of Argos ·
 Archons of Athens ·
 Kings of Athens ·
 Kings of Commagene ·
 Diadochi ·
 Kings of Lydia ·
 Kings of Macedonia ·
 Kings of Paionia ·
 Attalid kings of Pergamon ·
 Kings of Pontus ·
 Kings of Sparta ·
 Tyrants of Syracuse
 
 
Life
Agriculture ·
 Calendar ·
 Clothing ·
 Cuisine ·
 Economy ·
 Education ·
 Festivals ·
 Homosexuality ·
 Law ·
 Marriage ·
 Funeral and burial practices ·
 Olympic Games ·
 Pederasty ·
 Philosophy ·
 Prostitution ·
 Religion ·
 Slavery ·
 Warfare ·
 Wine
 
 
Military
Wars ·
 Athenian military ·
 Antigonid Macedonian army ·
 Army of Macedon ·
 Ballista ·
 Cretan archers ·
 Hellenistic armies ·
 Hippeis ·
 Hoplite ·
 Hetairoi ·
 Macedonian phalanx ·
 Phalanx formation ·
 Peltast ·
 Pezhetairos ·
 Sarissa ·
 Sacred Band of Thebes ·
 Sciritae ·
 Seleucid army ·
 Spartan army ·
 Toxotai ·
 Xiphos ·
 Xyston
 
 
People
 
Philosophers
Anaxagoras ·
 Anaximander ·
 Anaximenes ·
 Antisthenes ·
 Aristotle ·
 Democritus ·
 Diogenes of Sinope ·
 Epicurus ·
 Empedocles ·
 Heraclitus ·
 Hypatia ·
 Leucippus ·
 Gorgias ·
 Parmenides ·
 Plato ·
 Protagoras ·
 Pythagoras ·
 Socrates ·
 Thales ·
 Zeno
 
 
Authors
Aeschylus ·
 Aesop ·
 Alcaeus ·
 Archilochus ·
 Aristophanes ·
 Bacchylides ·
 Euripides ·
 Herodotus ·
 Hesiod ·
 Hipponax ·
 Homer ·
 Ibycus ·
 Lucian ·
 Menander ·
 Mimnermus ·
 Pindar ·
 Plutarch ·
 Polybius ·
 Sappho ·
 Simonides ·
 Sophocles ·
 Stesichorus ·
 Thucydides ·
 Theognis ·
 Timocreon ·
 Tyrtaeus ·
 Xenophon
 
 
Others
Agesilaus II ·
 Agis II ·
 Alexander the Great ·
 Alcibiades ·
 Aratus ·
 Archimedes ·
 Aspasia ·
 Demosthenes ·
 Epaminondas ·
 Euclid ·
 Hipparchus ·
 Hippocrates ·
 Leonidas ·
 Lycurgus ·
 Lysander ·
 Milo of Croton ·
 Miltiades ·
 Pausanias ·
 Pericles ·
 Philip of Macedon ·
 Philopoemen ·
 Ptolemy ·
 Pyrrhus ·
 Solon ·
 Themistocles
 
 
Groups
Playwrights ·
 Poets ·
 Philosophers ·
 Tyrants
 
 
Cultures
Ancient Greek tribes ·
 Greeks ·
 Thracian Greeks ·
 Ancient Macedonians
 
 
 
Arts
Architecture ·
 Coinage ·
 Literature ·
 Music ·
 Pottery ·
 Sculpture ·
 Theatre
 
 
Religion
 
Funeral and burial practices ·
 Greek mythology ·
 Greek temple ·
 Greek underworld ·
 Mythological figures ·
 Twelve Olympians
 
 
Sacred places
Eleusis ·
 Delphi ·
 Delos ·
 Dodona ·
 Mount Olympus ·
 Olympia
 
 
 
Sciences
Astronomy ·
 Mathematics ·
 Medicine ·
 Technology
 
 
Structures
Temple of Artemis ·
 Temple of Athena Nike ·
 Athenian Treasury ·
 Erechtheion ·
 Lion Gate ·
 Long Walls ·
 Parthenon ·
 Philippeion ·
 Samothrace temple complex ·
 Temple of Aphaea ·
 Temple of Hephaestus ·
 Temple of Hera, Olympia ·
 Temple of Zeus, Olympia ·
 Theatre of Dionysus ·
 Tunnel of Eupalinos
 
 
Language
Proto-Greek ·
 Mycenaean ·
 Homeric ·
 Dialects  (Aeolic ·
 Arcadocypriot ·
 Attic ·
 Doric ·
 Ionic ·
 Locrian ·
 Macedonian ·
 Pamphylian)
   ·
 Koine
 
 
Writing
Linear A ·
 Linear B ·
 Cypriot syllabary ·
 Greek alphabet ·
 Greek numerals ·
 Attic numerals
 
 
Lists
Cities ·
 Cities in Epirus ·
 Greek temples ·
 Place names ·
 Sroae ·
 Theatres
 
 
Category Category ·
 Portal Portal ·
 WikiProject WikiProject
 
 
 
[hide]
v ·
 t ·
 e
 
Classical antiquity by region
 
 
Europa
Graecia ·
 Italia ·
 Gallia ·
 Dacia ·
 Thracia ·
 Illyria ·
 Hispania ·
 Britannia ·
 Germania
 
 
Asia
Scythia ·
 Anatolia ·
 Syria ·
 Arabia
 
 
Africa
Libya ·
 Aegyptus
 
 
 
[hide]
v ·
 t ·
 e
 
Ancient Greek and Roman wars
 
 
Wars of ancient Greece
Trojan War ·
 First Messenian War ·
 Second Messenian War ·
 Lelantine War ·
 Sicilian Wars ·
 Greco-Persian Wars ·
 Aeginetan War ·
 Wars of the Delian League ·
 Samian War ·
 Peloponnesian War ·
 Corinthian War ·
 Sacred Wars (First, Second, Third) ·
 Social War (357–355 BC) ·
 Rise of Macedon ·
 Wars of Alexander the Great ·
 Wars over Alexander's empire ·
 Lamian War ·
 Chremonidean War ·
 Cleomenean War ·
 Social War (220–217 BC) ·
 Cretan War ·
 Aetolian War ·
 War against Nabis ·
 Maccabean Revolt
 
 
Wars of the Roman Republic
Roman-Latin wars  (First Latin War  (Battle of Lake Regillus)
   ·
 Second Latin War)
   ·
 Samnite Wars ·
 Pyrrhic War ·
 Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) ·
 Macedonian Wars  (Illyrian ·
 First Macedonian ·
 Second Macedonian ·
 Seleucid ·
 Third Macedonian ·
 Fourth Macedonian)
   ·
 Jugurthine War ·
 Cimbrian War ·
 Roman Servile Wars  (First ·
 Second ·
 Third)
   ·
 Social War ·
 Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla  (First ·
 Second)
   ·
 Mithridatic Wars  (First ·
 Second ·
 Third)
   ·
 Gallic Wars ·
 Julius Caesar's civil war ·
 End of the Republic  (Post-Caesarian ·
 Liberators' ·
 Sicilian ·
 Fulvia's ·
 Final)
 
 
 
Wars of the Roman Empire
Germanic Wars  (Marcomannic ·
 Alamannic ·
 Gothic ·
 Visigothic)
   ·
 Wars in Britain ·
 Wars of Boudica ·
 Armenian War ·
 Civil War of 69 ·
 Jewish Wars ·
 Domitian's Dacian War ·
 Trajan's Dacian Wars ·
 Parthian Wars ·
 Roman–Persian Wars ·
 Civil Wars of the Third Century ·
 Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
 
 
 
 

Business seller information

RLwebsite
4 Edmund Street
Salford
Lancashire
M6 5WQ
United Kingdom

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Will Send Anywhere Worldwide. Payment by Cheque or Postal Order Preferred, but Paypal Accepted. All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. Please Email me any Questions at notinashyway@rlwebsite.com and I Will Reply ASAP.
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