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Details about  1821 CROWN Soild Silver Coin Antique Georgian Royal Mint Good Condition Grade UK

1821 CROWN Soild Silver Coin Antique Georgian Royal Mint Good Condition Grade UK

Seller information

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Item Information

Item condition:
--not specified

In Very Good Condition for its age

Ended:
Jul 06, 2014 16:32:47 EDT
Winning bid:
GBP 26.00
shipping
Approximately C $46.49(including shipping)
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Item specifics

Seller Notes: In Very Good Condition for its age
Era:

Milled (1816-1837)

Collections/ Bulk Lots:

1821 Crown

Denomination:

Crown

Year of Issue:

1821

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1821 Crown

Almost 200 year old Engllish Crown Coin from 1821


KM# 680
Features
Country     United Kingdom
Years     1821-1822
Value     1 Crown (1/4 LSD)
Metal     Silver (.925)
Weight     28.2759 g
Diameter     38 mm
Engravers     Jean Baptiste Merlen (obverse)
Benedetto Pistrucci (reverse)
Shape     Round
Orientation     Coin alignment ↑↓
Demonetized     yes
 
1 Crown - George IV - obverse1 Crown - George IV - reverse
Obverse

Lettering:
GEORGIUS D:G: BRITANNIAR:REX F:D:
B.P.
Reverse

Lettering:
1821
WWP
B.P.
Edge

Lettering: DECUS ET TUTAMEN. ANNO REGNI SECUNDO.

Solid 0.925 Silver

It is in good condition for its age almost 200 years old
Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake
 
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The British crown, the successor to the English Crown and the Scottish Dollar, came into being with the Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707. As with the English coin, its value was five shillings.

Always a heavy silver coin weighing about one ounce, during the 19th and 20th centuries the Crown declined from being a real means of exchange to being a coin rarely spent and minted for commemorative purposes only. In that format it has continued to be minted, even following decimalisation of the British currency in 1971. However, as the result of inflation the value of the coin was revised upwards to five pounds.

The coin's origins lay in the English silver crown, one of many silver coins that appeared in various countries from the 16th century onwards, the most famous example perhaps being pieces of eight, all of which were of a similar size and weight (approx 38mm diameter and containing approx 25 grams of fine silver) and thus interchangeable in international trade.[1] The kingdom of England also minted gold Crowns in the 16th and 17th centuries.

The dies for all gold and silver coins of Queen Anne and King George I were engraved by John Croker, a migrant originally from Dresden in the Duchy of Saxony.[2]

The British crown was always a large coin, and from the 19th century it did not circulate well. However, crowns were usually struck in a new monarch's coronation year, true of each monarch since King George IV up until the present monarch in 1953, with the single exception of King George V.

The Queen Victoria "Gothic" crown of 1847 (mintage just 8,000 and produced to celebrate the Gothic revival) is considered by many to be the most beautiful British coin ever minted.

The King George V "wreath" crowns struck from 1927 to 1936 (excluding 1935 when the more common "rocking horse" crown was minted to commemorate the King's Silver Jubilee) depict a wreath on the reverse of the coin and were struck in very low numbers. Generally struck late in the year and intended to be purchased as Christmas gifts, they did not circulate well with the rarest of all dates, 1934, (mintage just 932) now fetching several thousand pounds each. The 1927 'wreath' crowns were struck as proofs only (15,030 minted).

With its large size, many of the later coins were primarily commemoratives. The 1951 issue was for the Festival of Britain, and was only struck in proof condition. The 1965 issue carried the image of Winston Churchill on the reverse, the first time a non-monarch or commoner was ever placed on a British coin, and marked his death. According to the Standard Catalogue of coins, 19,640,000 of this coin were minted, a very high number at the time, making them of little value today except as a mark of respect for the national war leader. Production of the Churchill Crown began on the 11th of October 1965, and stopped in the summer of 1966.

The crown was worth five shillings (or 60 pre-decimal pence) until decimalisation in February 1971, and was also the basis of other denominations such as the half crown and double crown.

The last five shilling piece was minted in 1965.

The crown coin was nicknamed the dollar, but is not to be confused with the British trade dollar that circulated in the Orient.

In 2014 a new world record price was achieved for a milled silver crown. The coin was issued as a pattern by engraver Thomas Simon in 1663 and nicknamed the "Reddite Crown". This was presented to Charles II as the new crown piece but was ultimately rejected in favour of the Roettiers Brothers' design. Auctioneer Spink of London sold the coin on 27 March, 2014 for £396,000 including commission..[3]
After Decimalisation

After decimalisation on 15 February 1971 a new coin known as a 25p (25 pence) piece was introduced. Whilst being legal tender [4] and having the same decimal value as a crown, the 25p pieces were issued to commemorate events, e.g. 1972 was for the Silver Wedding anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The 1977 issue was to celebrate Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee, the 1980 issue for the 80th birthday of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and, in 1981, the coin was issued to celebrate the marriage of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer. All of these issues were struck in large mintages in plastic cases and in cupro-nickel, an alloy of 75% copper and 25% nickel. However, in addition to this, limited numbers of collectors' coins of these modern issues were struck to proof quality separately by the Royal Mint in sterling (92.5%) silver and presented with certificates of authenticity in boxes. The mintages for the silver proof 25p coins issued are as follows:

1972 100,000 1977 377,000 1980 83,672 1981 218,142

Further issues continue to be minted to the present day, initially with a value of twenty-five pence, and then, from 1990, with a value of five pounds.
Changing values

The face or denominational value of the crown remained as five shillings from 1544 to 1965. For most of this period there was no mark of value on the coin. From 1927 to 1939 the word "CROWN" appears, and from 1951 to 1960 this was changed to "FIVE SHILLINGS". After decimalisation in 1971, the face value kept its five shillings equivalent at 25 new pence, later simply 25 pence, although the face value is not shown on any of these issues.

From 1990, the crown was re-tariffed at five pounds (£5), probably in view of its relatively large size compared with its face value, and taking into consideration its production costs, and the Royal Mint's profits on sales of commemorative coins. While this change was understandable, it has brought with it a slight confusion, and the popular misbelief that all crowns have a five pound face value, including the pre-1990 ones.

Although all "normal" issues since 1951 have been composed of cupro-nickel, special proof versions have been produced for sale to collectors, and as gift items, in silver, gold, and occasionally platinum.

The fact that gold £5 crowns are now produced means that there are two different strains of five pound gold coins, namely crowns and what are now termed "quintuple sovereigns" for want of a more concise term.

Numismatically, the term "crown-sized" is used generically to describe large silver or cupro-nickel coins of about 40 mm in diameter. Most Commonwealth countries still issue crown-sized coins for sale to collectors.

New Zealand's original and present fifty-cent pieces, and Australia's previously round but now dodecagonal fifty-cent piece, although valued at five shillings in predecimal accounting, are all smaller than the standard silver crown pieces issued by those countries (and the UK).
Composition

For silver crowns, the grade of silver adhered to the long-standing standard (established in the 12th century by Henry II) – the Sterling Silver standard of 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper. This was a harder-wearing alloy, yet it was still a rather high grade of silver. It went some way towards discouraging the practice of "clipping", though this practice was further discouraged and largely eliminated with the introduction of the milled edge seen on coins today.

In a debasement process which took effect in 1920, the silver content of all British coins was reduced from 92.5% to 50%, with a portion of the remainder consisting of manganese, which caused the coins to tarnish to a very dark colour after they had been in circulation for a significant period. Silver was eliminated altogether in 1947, with the move to a composition of cupro-nickel – except for proof issues, which returned to the pre-1920 92.5% silver composition.

Since standardisation of the UK's silver coinage in 1816 (UK Coinage Reform 1816), a crown has, as a general rule, had a diameter of 38.61 mm, and weighed 28.276g.[5]
Modern mintages
Monarch     Year     Number Minted     Detail     Composition*
Edward VII     1902     256,020     Coronation     Ster. Silv.
George V     1927     15,030 (proof only)     'Wreath' Crown     0.500 silver
    1928     9,034     'Wreath' Crown     0.500 silver
    1929     4,994     'Wreath' Crown     0.500 silver
    1930     4,847     'Wreath' Crown     0.500 silver
    1931     4,056     'Wreath' Crown     0.500 silver
    1932     2,395     'Wreath' Crown     0.500 silver
    1933     7,132     'Wreath' Crown     0.500 silver
    1934     932     'Wreath' Crown     0.500 silver
    1935     714,769     George V and Queen Mary Silver Jubilee     0.500 silver
    1936     2,473     'Wreath' Crown     0.500 silver
George VI     1937     418,699     Coronation     0.500 silver
    1951     1,983,540     Festival of Britain     Cu/Ni
Elizabeth II     1953     5,962,621     Coronation     Cu/Ni
    1960     1,024,038     British Exhibition in New York     Cu/Ni
    1965     19,640,000     Death of Sir Winston Churchill     Cu/Ni
    1972         Queen Elizabeth II 25th Wedding Anniversary 25p     Cu/Ni
    1977         Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee 25p     Cu/Ni
    1980         Queen Mother 80th Birthday 25p     Cu/Ni
    1981         Charles & Diana Wedding 25p     Cu/Ni

    The specifications for composition refer to the standard circulation versions. Proof versions continue to be minted in Sterling Silver

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

British coinage
Decimal    

    ½p
    1p
    2p
    5p
    10p
    20p
    50p
    £1
    £2

Pre-decimal    

    Quarter farthing (1⁄16d)
    Third farthing (1⁄12d)
    Half farthing (1⁄8d)
    Farthing (¼d)
    Halfpenny (½d)
    Penny (1d)
    Threepence (3d)
    Groat (4d)
    Sixpence (6d)
    Shilling (1/-)
    Florin (2/-)
    Half crown (2/6)
    Double florin (4/-)
    Crown (5/-)
    Half guinea (10/6)
    Guinea (21/-)

Commemorative and bullion    

    25p
    £5
    £20
    Maundy money
    Quarter sovereign
    Half sovereign
    Sovereign
    Britannia

See also    

    Pound sterling
    Coins of the pound sterling
    Banknotes of the pound sterling
    List of British banknotes and coins
    Scottish coinage
    Coins of Ireland
    List of people on coins of the United Kingdom

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Currency units named crown or similar
Circulating    

    Czech koruna
    Danish krone
    Faroese króna
    Icelandic króna
    Norwegian krone
    Swedish krona

Obsolete    

    Austrian krone
    Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler
    Austro-Hungarian krone
    Bohemian and Moravian koruna
    Czechoslovak koruna
    English crown
    Estonian kroon
    Fiume krone
    Hungarian korona
    Liechtenstein krone
    Slovak koruna
    Yugoslav krone

Proposed    

    Greenlandic krone

As a denomination    

    British crown
    Kronenthaler



1822
Millennium:     2nd millennium
Centuries:     18th century – 19th century – 20th century
Decades:     1790s  1800s  1810s  – 1820s –  1830s  1840s  1850s
Years:     1819 1820 1821 – 1822 – 1823 1824 1825
1822 in topic:
Humanities
Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music
By country
Australia – Brazil - Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK
Other topics
Rail Transport – Science – Sports
Lists of leaders
Colonial Governors – State leaders
Birth and death categories
Births – Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments – Disestablishments


1822 in other calendars Gregorian calendar     1822
MDCCCXXII
Ab urbe condita     2575
Armenian calendar     1271
ԹՎ ՌՄՀԱ
Assyrian calendar     6572
Bahá'í calendar     −22 – −21
Bengali calendar     1229
Berber calendar     2772
British Regnal year     2 Geo. 4 – 3 Geo. 4
Buddhist calendar     2366
Burmese calendar     1184
Byzantine calendar     7330–7331
Chinese calendar     辛巳年 (Metal Snake)
4518 or 4458
    — to —
壬午年 (Water Horse)
4519 or 4459
Coptic calendar     1538–1539
Discordian calendar     2988
Ethiopian calendar     1814–1815
Hebrew calendar     5582–5583
Hindu calendars    
 - Vikram Samvat     1878–1879
 - Shaka Samvat     1744–1745
 - Kali Yuga     4923–4924
Holocene calendar     11822
Igbo calendar     822–823
Iranian calendar     1200–1201
Islamic calendar     1237–1238
Japanese calendar     Bunsei 5
(文政5年)
Juche calendar     N/A
Julian calendar     Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar     4155
Minguo calendar     90 before ROC
民前90年
Thai solar calendar     2365

Year 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar.
Events
January–March
Destruction of Ottoman flagship at Chios by Nikiphoros Lytras

    February 6 – Chinese junk Tek Sing sinks in the South China Sea with the loss of around 1600 people on board.
    February 9 – The invading Haitian forces led by Jean Pierre Boyer arrive in Santo Domingo, to overthrow the newly founded Republic.
    March 31 – Greek War of Independence: Start of Chios Massacre, during which 20,000 Greeks on the island of Chios are slaughtered by Ottoman troops and 23,000 exiled.[1]

April–June

    May 24 – Battle of Pichincha: Simón Bolívar secures the independence of Quito.
    May 26 – 116 people die in the Grue Church fire, the biggest fire disaster in Norway's history.
    June 6 – Alexis St. Martin accidentally shot in the stomach, which leads the way to William Beaumont's studies on digestion.

July–September

    July 3 – Charles Babbage publishes a proposal for a "difference engine", a forerunner of the modern computer for calculating logarithms and trigonometric functions. Construction of an operational version will proceed under British Government sponsorship 1823–32 but it will never be completed.[2]
    July 8 – The Chippewas turn over a huge tract of land in Ontario to the United Kingdom.
    July 13 – Greek War of Independence: Greeks defeat Ottoman forces at Thermopylae.
    July 13 – Smith Edgar published the first issue of the Bridge Town Museum & N.J. Advocate in Rahway, N.J., the original ancestor of the current NJToday.Net, New Jersey’s oldest weekly newspaper.
    July 26 – Guayaquil conference: José de San Martín arrives in Guayaquil, Ecuador, to meet with Simón Bolívar.
    July 27 – Guayaquil Conference: Simón Bolívar and General José de San Martín meet in Guayaquil, which Bolívar later annexes.

June 14: Babbage's Difference engine.

    July 31 – The last public whipping is carried out in Edinburgh.
    August 12 – St David's College (now the University of Wales, Lampeter) is founded in Wales by Thomas Burgess, Bishop of St David's.
    August 15–29 – Visit of King George IV to Scotland.[3]
    August 22 – The English ship Orion lands at Yerba Buena, now named San Francisco, under the command of William A. Richardson.
    September 7 – Brazilian independence: Brazil declares its independence from Portugal.
    September 8–13 – Battle of Nauplia: In a series of naval engagements the Ottoman Fleet fails to break through the Greek Fleet under Admiral Andreas Vokos Miaoulis
    September 16
        George Canning is appointed British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
        Constituent Congress of Peru begins its first session.
    September 22 – Portugal approves its first Constitution.

October–December

    October 12 – Peter I of Brazil is declared the constitutional emperor of Brazil.
    October 31 – Emperor Agustín de Iturbide of the First Mexican Empire dissolves the country's Congress of the Union and replaced it with a military junta.
    October–December – Congress of Verona: Russia, Austria and Prussia approve French intervention in Spain.
    November 13 – Greek War of Independence: Nafplion falls to the Greek rebels.
    November 13 – Congregation of St. Basil founded in France.
    December 1 – Peter I is crowned as Emperor of Brazil (see The reign of Pedro I, 1822–31).

Date unknown
Jean-François Champollion

    Hieroglyphs are deciphered by Thomas Young and Jean-François Champollion, using the Rosetta Stone.
    Galileo Galilei's Dialogue is taken off the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, the Roman Catholic Church's list of banned books.
    Ashley's Hundred leave from St. Louis, setting off a major increase in fur trade.
    An earthquake in Chile raises the coastal area.
    Coffee is no longer banned in Sweden.
    History of Liberia: The first group of freed slaves from the United States arrive in modern-day Liberia and found Monrovia.

Births
January–June

    January 2 – Rudolf Clausius, German physicist (d. 1888)
    January 6 – Heinrich Schliemann, German archaeologist (d. 1890)
    January 9 – Carol Benesch, Silesian and Romanian architect (d. 1896)
    January 25 – Charles Reed Bishop, preeminent businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii (d. 1915)
    January 28 – Alexander Mackenzie, second Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1892)
    February 4 – Edward Fitzgerald Beale, American Navy Lieutenant and explorer (d. 1893)
    February 16 – Sir Francis Galton, English explorer and biologist (d. 1911)
    March 4 – Jules Antoine Lissajous, French mathematician (d. 1880)
    April 3 – Edward Everett Hale, American writer (d. 1909)
    April 26 – Frederick Law Olmsted, American landscape architect (d. 1903)
    April 27 – Ulysses S. Grant, 18th President of the United States (d. 1885)
    May 20 – Frédéric Passy, French economist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1912)
    May 26 – Edmond de Goncourt, French writer (d. 1896)
    May 11 – Henry Baker Tristram, English clergyman, and ornithologist. (d. 1906)
    June 10 – John Jacob Astor III, American businessman (d. 1890)

July–December

    July 18 – Princess Augusta of Cambridge (d. 1916)
    July 20 – Gregor Mendel, Czech geneticist (d. 1884)
    July 21 – Alexander H. Jones, Congressional Representative from North Carolina. (d. 1901)
    July 25 – Andrew Bryson, American admiral (d. 1892)
    October 4 – Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th President of the United States (d. 1893)
    October 6 – Benjamin F. Isherwood, American admiral and United States Navy Engineer-in-Chief (d. 1915)
    December 10 – César Franck, Belgian composer and organist (d. 1890)
    December 24 – Matthew Arnold, English poet (d. 1888)
    December 27 – Louis Pasteur, French microbiologist and chemist (d. 1895)

Deaths
January–June

    January 10 – Bathilde d'Orléans, French princess (b. 1750)
    January 24 – Ali Pasha, ruler of European Turkey (b. 1741)
    February 10 – Prince Albert of Saxony, Duke of Teschen (b. 1738)
    February 24 – Thomas Coutts, banker (b. 1735)
    February 27 – Sir John Borlase Warren, 1st Baronet, admiral (b. 1753)
    April 14 – Edmund Butcher, minister (b. 1757)
    April 20 – Allegra Byron, illegitimate daughter of Lord Byron (b. 1817)
    May 27 – Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. 1772)
    June 25 – E. T. A. Hoffmann, German Romantic author (b. 1776)

July–December

    July 8 – Percy Bysshe Shelley, English poet (b. 1792)
    August 4 – Kristjan Jaak Peterson, Estonian poet (b. 1801)
    August 12 – Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, British foreign secretary (suicide) (b. 1769)
    August 25 – William Herschel, German-born astronomer (b. 1738)
    October 26 – Mahmud Dramali Pasha, Ottoman vizier (b. c. 1780)
    October 31 – Jared Ingersoll, U.S. presidential candidate (b. 1749)



Coins are pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government.
Coins are usually metal or alloy metal, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes: these coins are usually worth less than banknotes: usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation. If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, or the general public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law).
Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of silver or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, and the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. The American Gold Eagle has a face value of US$50, and the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins also have nominal (purely symbolic) face values (e.g. C$50 for 1 oz.); but the Krugerrand does not.
Historically, a great quantity of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials (e.g. porcelain) have been used to produce coins for circulation, collection, and metal investment: bullion coins often serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion.[1]
Today, the term coin can also be used in reference to digital currencies which are not issued by a state. As of 2013, examples include BitCoin and LiteCoin, among others.
As coins have long been used as money, in some languages the same word is used for "coin" and "currency".

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The first coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, India & China around 600-700 BC. Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.[2]
Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire. Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius). Ancient and early medieval coins in theory had the value of their metal content, although there have been many instances throughout history of the metal content of coins being debased, so that the inferior coins were worth less in metal than their face value. Fiat money first arose in medieval China, with the jiaozi paper money. Early paper money was introduced in Europe in the later Middle Ages, but some coins continued to have the value of the gold or silver they contained throughout the Early Modern period. The penny was mint (coin)ed as a silver coin until the 17th century. The first copper pennies were minted in the United States in the 1790s.[3][citation needed] Silver content was reduced in many coins in the 19th century (use of billon), and the first coins made entirely of base metal (e.g. nickel, cupronickel, aluminium bronze), representing values higher than the value of their metal, were minted in the mid 19th century.
Bronze Age predecessors[edit]

 

 An Oxhide ingot from Crete. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an "ox-hide", suggesting that they represented standardized values.
Coins were an evolution of "currency" systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, and tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made, such as those discovered in a tomb near Anyang.[4][5] These were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese money, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell.[6][7][8] These, as well as later Chinese bronzes, were replicas of knives, spades, and hoes, but not "coins" in the narrow sense, as they did not carry a mark or marks certifying them to be of a definite exchange value.[9]
Iron Age[edit]
Further information: Archaic period of ancient Greek coinage

 

 1/3rd stater from Lydia, 6th century BC.
 

Electrum coin from Ephesus, 620-600 BC. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch.
 

 Anatolian gold coin from 4th century BC Mysia.
 

 Greek drachma of Aegina. Obverse: Land Chelone / Reverse: ΑΙΓ(INA) and dolphin. The oldest Aegina Chelone coins depicted sea turtles and were minted ca. 700 BC.[10]
The earliest coins are mostly associated with Iron Age Anatolia, especially with the kingdom of Lydia.[11] Early electrum coins were not standardized in weight, and in their earliest stage may have been ritual objects, such as badges or medals, issued by priests.[12] Many early Lydian and Greek coins were minted under the authority of private individuals and are thus more akin to tokens or badges than to modern coins,[13] though due to their numbers it is evident that some were official state issues, with King Alyattes of Lydia being a frequently mentioned originator of coinage.[14]
The first Lydian coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold that was further alloyed with added silver and copper.[15] Most of the early Lydian coins include no writing ("legend" or "inscription"), only an image of a symbolic animal. Therefore the dating of these coins relies primarily on archaeological evidence, with the most commonly cited evidence coming from excavations at the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, also called the Ephesian Artemision (which would later evolve into one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World). Because the oldest lion head "coins" were discovered in that temple, and they do not appear to have been used in commerce, these objects may not have been coins but badges or medals issued by the priests of that temple. Anatolian Artemis was the Πὀτνια Θηρῶν (Potnia Thêrôn, "Mistress of Animals"), whose symbol was the stag.
A small percentage of early Lydian/Greek coins have a legend.[16] A famous early electrum coin, the most ancient inscribed coin at present known, is from nearby Caria. This coin has a Greek legend reading phaenos emi sema [17] interpreted variously as "I am the badge of Phanes", or "I am the sign of light",[18] or "I am the tomb of light", or "I am the tomb of Phanes". The coins of Phanes are known to be amongst the earliest of Greek coins, a hemihekte of the issue was found in the foundation deposit of the temple of Artemis at Ephesos (the oldest deposit of electrum coins discovered). One assumption is that Phanes was a wealthy merchant, another that this coin is associated with Apollo-Phanes and, due to the Deer, with Artemis (twin sister of the god of light Apollo-Phaneos). Although only seven Phanes type coins were discovered, it is also notable that 20% of all early electrum coins also have the lion of Artemis and the sun burst of Apollo-Phaneos. Alternatively, Phanes may have been the Halicarnassian mercenary of Amasis mentioned by Herodotus, who escaped to the court of Cambyses, and became his guide in the invasion of Egypt in 527 or 525 BC. According to Herodotus, this Phanes was buried alive by a sandstorm, together with 50,000 Persian soldiers, while trying to conquer the temple of Amun–Zeus in Egypt.[19] The fact that the Greek word "Phanes" also means light (or lamp), and the word "sema" also means tomb makes this coin a famous and controversial one.[20]
Another candidate for the site of the earliest coins is Aegina, where Chelone ("turtle") coins were first minted on 700 BC,[21] either by the local Aegina people or by Pheidon king of Argos (who first set the standards of weights and measures). In the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, there is a unique electrum stater of Aegina.[10][22][unreliable source?]
Coins from Athens and Corinth appeared shortly thereafter, known to exist at least since the late 6th century BC.[23]
Classical Antiquity[edit]
Further information: Ancient Greek coinage, Achaemenid coinage, Illyrian coinage, Roman currency, Coinage of India, Aureus, Solidus (coin), Denarius, and Antoninianus

 

 Set of three roman aurei depicting the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Top to bottom: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. 69-96 AD.
Coinage followed Greek colonization and influence first around the Mediterranean and soon after to North Africa (including Egypt), Syria, Persia, and the Balkans.[24]
Coins were minted in the Achaemenid Empire, including the gold darics and silver sigloi. and with the Achemenid conquest of Gandhara under Darius the Great ca. 520 BC, the practice spread to the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The coins of this period were called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana.[25] These earliest Indian coins, however, are unlike those circulated in Persia, which were derived from the Greek/Anatolian type; they not disk-shaped but rather stamped bars of metal, suggesting that the innovation of stamped currency was added to a pre-existing form of token currency which had already been present in the Mahajanapada kingdoms of the Indian Iron Age. Mahajanapadas that minted their own coins included Gandhara, Kuntala, Kuru, Panchala, Shakya, Surasena and Surashtra.[26]
In China, early round coins appear in the 4th century BC.
The first Roman coins, which were crude, heavy cast bronzes, were issued ca. 289 B
Most coins presently are made of a base metal, and their value comes from their status as fiat money. This means that the value of the coin is decreed by government fiat (law), and thus is determined by the free market only inasmuch as national currencies are used in domestic trade and also traded internationally on foreign exchange markets. Thus these coins are monetary tokens, just as paper currency is: they are usually not backed by metal, but rather by some form of government guarantee. Some have suggested that such coins not be considered to be "true coins" (see below). Thus there is very little economic difference between notes and coins of equivalent face value.
Coins may be in circulation with fiat values lower than the value of their component metals, but they are never initially issued with such value, and the shortfall only arises over time due to inflation, as market values for the metal overtake the fiat declared face value of the coin. Examples are the pre-1965 US dime, quarter, half dollar, and dollar, US nickel, and pre-1982 US penny. As a result of the increase in the value of copper, the United States greatly reduced the amount of copper in each penny. Since mid-1982, United States pennies are made of 97.5% zinc, with the remaining 2.5% being a coating of copper. Extreme differences between fiat values and metal values of coins causes coins to be hoarded or removed from circulation by illicit smelters in order to realise the value of their metal content. This is an example of Gresham's law. The United States Mint, in an attempt to avoid this, implemented new interim rules on December 14, 2006, subject to public comment for 30 days, which criminalized the melting and export of pennies and nickels.[30] Violators can be fined up to $10,000 and/or imprisoned for up to five years.
A coin's value as a collector's item or as an investment generally depends on its condition, specific historical significance, rarity, quality/beauty of the design and general popularity with collectors. If a coin is greatly lacking in all of these, it is unlikely to be worth much. The value of bullion coins is also influenced to some extent by those factors, but is largely based on the value of their gold, silver, or platinum content. Sometimes non-monetized bullion coins such as the Canadian Maple Leaf and the American Gold Eagle are minted with nominal face values less than the value of the metal in them, but as such coins are never intended for circulation, these face values have no relevance.
Coins can be used as creative medium of expression – from fine art sculpture to the penny machines that can be found in most amusement parks. In the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in the United States there are some regulations specific to nickels and pennies that are informative on this topic. 31 CFR § 82.1 forbids unauthorized persons from exporting, melting, or treating any 5 or 1 cent coins.
This has been a particular problem with nickels and dimes (and with some comparable coins in other currencies) because of their relatively low face value and unstable commodity prices. For a while the copper in US pennies was worth more than one cent, so people would hoard pennies then melt them down for their metal value. It costs more than face value to manufacture pennies or nickels, so any widespread loss of the coins in circulation could be expensive for the Treasury. This was more of a problem when coins were still made of precious metals like silver and gold, so historically strict laws against alteration make more sense.
31 CFR § 82.2 goes on to state that: "(b) The prohibition contained in § 82.1 against the treatment of 5-cent coins and one-cent coins shall not apply to the treatment of these coins for educational, amusement, novelty, jewelry, and similar purposes as long as the volumes treated and the nature of the treatment makes it clear that such treatment is not intended as a means by which to profit solely from the value of the metal content of the coins."
Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world[1] with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population[2][3][4]) and covering 6.5 million square kilometers (2.5 million sq mi) during its height between the first and second centuries AD.[5][6][7]
In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, parts of Northern Europe, and parts of Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into "Classical Antiquity" together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.
The Romans are still remembered today, including names such as Julius Caesar, Cicero, and Augustus. Ancient Roman society contributed greatly to government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, society and more in the Western world. A civilization highly developed for its time, Rome professionalized and greatly expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics[8][9][10] such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as large monuments, palaces, and public facilities.
By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged under the leadership of Augustus Caesar. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a common ritual for a new emperor's rise.[11][12][13] States, such as Palmyra, temporarily divided the Empire in a third-century crisis. Soldier emperors reunified it, by dividing the empire between Western and Eastern halves.
Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-mediaeval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The Eastern Roman Empire survived this crisis and was governed from Constantinople after the division of the Empire. It comprised Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt. Despite the later loss of Syria and Egypt to the Arab-Islamic Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire continued for another millennium, until its remnants were annexed by the emerging Turkish Ottoman Empire. This eastern, Christian, medieval stage of the Empire is usually called the Byzantine Empire by historians.
 

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She-wolf suckles Romulus and Remus.jpg
 
 
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 Constantine XI Palaiologos
 
 
 
Ancient Greece was a Greek civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period[citation needed] of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era.[1] Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea.
Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean region and Europe, for which reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture.[
 
Ancient Greece
 
 
Outline ·
 Timeline
 
 
Periods
Cycladic civilization ·
 Minoan civilization ·
 Mycenaean civilization ·
 Greek Dark Ages ·
 Archaic period ·
 Classical Greece ·
 Hellenistic Greece ·
 Roman Greece
 
 
Geography
Aegean Sea ·
 Aeolis ·
 Alexandria ·
 Antioch ·
 Crete ·
 Cyprus ·
 Cappadocia ·
 Doris ·
 Hellespont ·
 Ephesus ·
 Epirus ·
 Ionian Sea ·
 Ionia ·
 Macedonia ·
 Magna Graecia ·
 Miletus ·
 Pergamon ·
 Peloponnesus ·
 Pontus ·
 Ancient Greek colonies
 
 
City states
Argos ·
 Athens ·
 Byzantium ·
 Chalkis ·
 Corinth ·
 Megalopolis ·
 Rhodes ·
 Syracuse ·
 Sparta ·
 Thebes
 
 
Politics
Athenian democracy  (Agora ·
 Areopagus ·
 Ecclesia ·
 Graphē paranómōn ·
 Heliaia ·
 Ostracism)
   ·
 Boeotarch ·
 Boule ·
 Koinon ·
 Proxeny ·
 Spartan Constitution  (Apella ·
 Ephor ·
 Gerousia ·
 Harmost)
   ·
 Strategos ·
 Synedrion ·
 Tagus ·
 Tyrant ·
 Amphictyonic League
 
 
Rulers
Kings of Argos ·
 Archons of Athens ·
 Kings of Athens ·
 Kings of Commagene ·
 Diadochi ·
 Kings of Lydia ·
 Kings of Macedonia ·
 Kings of Paionia ·
 Attalid kings of Pergamon ·
 Kings of Pontus ·
 Kings of Sparta ·
 Tyrants of Syracuse
 
 
Life
Agriculture ·
 Calendar ·
 Clothing ·
 Cuisine ·
 Economy ·
 Education ·
 Festivals ·
 Homosexuality ·
 Law ·
 Marriage ·
 Funeral and burial practices ·
 Olympic Games ·
 Pederasty ·
 Philosophy ·
 Prostitution ·
 Religion ·
 Slavery ·
 Warfare ·
 Wine
 
 
Military
Wars ·
 Athenian military ·
 Antigonid Macedonian army ·
 Army of Macedon ·
 Ballista ·
 Cretan archers ·
 Hellenistic armies ·
 Hippeis ·
 Hoplite ·
 Hetairoi ·
 Macedonian phalanx ·
 Phalanx formation ·
 Peltast ·
 Pezhetairos ·
 Sarissa ·
 Sacred Band of Thebes ·
 Sciritae ·
 Seleucid army ·
 Spartan army ·
 Toxotai ·
 Xiphos ·
 Xyston
 
 
People
 
Philosophers
Anaxagoras ·
 Anaximander ·
 Anaximenes ·
 Antisthenes ·
 Aristotle ·
 Democritus ·
 Diogenes of Sinope ·
 Epicurus ·
 Empedocles ·
 Heraclitus ·
 Hypatia ·
 Leucippus ·
 Gorgias ·
 Parmenides ·
 Plato ·
 Protagoras ·
 Pythagoras ·
 Socrates ·
 Thales ·
 Zeno
 
 
Authors
Aeschylus ·
 Aesop ·
 Alcaeus ·
 Archilochus ·
 Aristophanes ·
 Bacchylides ·
 Euripides ·
 Herodotus ·
 Hesiod ·
 Hipponax ·
 Homer ·
 Ibycus ·
 Lucian ·
 Menander ·
 Mimnermus ·
 Pindar ·
 Plutarch ·
 Polybius ·
 Sappho ·
 Simonides ·
 Sophocles ·
 Stesichorus ·
 Thucydides ·
 Theognis ·
 Timocreon ·
 Tyrtaeus ·
 Xenophon
 
 
Others
Agesilaus II ·
 Agis II ·
 Alexander the Great ·
 Alcibiades ·
 Aratus ·
 Archimedes ·
 Aspasia ·
 Demosthenes ·
 Epaminondas ·
 Euclid ·
 Hipparchus ·
 Hippocrates ·
 Leonidas ·
 Lycurgus ·
 Lysander ·
 Milo of Croton ·
 Miltiades ·
 Pausanias ·
 Pericles ·
 Philip of Macedon ·
 Philopoemen ·
 Ptolemy ·
 Pyrrhus ·
 Solon ·
 Themistocles
 
 
Groups
Playwrights ·
 Poets ·
 Philosophers ·
 Tyrants
 
 
Cultures
Ancient Greek tribes ·
 Greeks ·
 Thracian Greeks ·
 Ancient Macedonians
 
 
 
Arts
Architecture ·
 Coinage ·
 Literature ·
 Music ·
 Pottery ·
 Sculpture ·
 Theatre
 
 
Religion
 
Funeral and burial practices ·
 Greek mythology ·
 Greek temple ·
 Greek underworld ·
 Mythological figures ·
 Twelve Olympians
 
 
Sacred places
Eleusis ·
 Delphi ·
 Delos ·
 Dodona ·
 Mount Olympus ·
 Olympia
 
 
 
Sciences
Astronomy ·
 Mathematics ·
 Medicine ·
 Technology
 
 
Structures
Temple of Artemis ·
 Temple of Athena Nike ·
 Athenian Treasury ·
 Erechtheion ·
 Lion Gate ·
 Long Walls ·
 Parthenon ·
 Philippeion ·
 Samothrace temple complex ·
 Temple of Aphaea ·
 Temple of Hephaestus ·
 Temple of Hera, Olympia ·
 Temple of Zeus, Olympia ·
 Theatre of Dionysus ·
 Tunnel of Eupalinos
 
 
Language
Proto-Greek ·
 Mycenaean ·
 Homeric ·
 Dialects  (Aeolic ·
 Arcadocypriot ·
 Attic ·
 Doric ·
 Ionic ·
 Locrian ·
 Macedonian ·
 Pamphylian)
   ·
 Koine
 
 
Writing
Linear A ·
 Linear B ·
 Cypriot syllabary ·
 Greek alphabet ·
 Greek numerals ·
 Attic numerals
 
 
Lists
Cities ·
 Cities in Epirus ·
 Greek temples ·
 Place names ·
 Sroae ·
 Theatres
 
 
Category Category ·
 Portal Portal ·
 WikiProject WikiProject
 
 
 
[hide]
v ·
 t ·
 e
 
Classical antiquity by region
 
 
Europa
Graecia ·
 Italia ·
 Gallia ·
 Dacia ·
 Thracia ·
 Illyria ·
 Hispania ·
 Britannia ·
 Germania
 
 
Asia
Scythia ·
 Anatolia ·
 Syria ·
 Arabia
 
 
Africa
Libya ·
 Aegyptus
 
 
 
[hide]
v ·
 t ·
 e
 
Ancient Greek and Roman wars
 
 
Wars of ancient Greece
Trojan War ·
 First Messenian War ·
 Second Messenian War ·
 Lelantine War ·
 Sicilian Wars ·
 Greco-Persian Wars ·
 Aeginetan War ·
 Wars of the Delian League ·
 Samian War ·
 Peloponnesian War ·
 Corinthian War ·
 Sacred Wars (First, Second, Third) ·
 Social War (357–355 BC) ·
 Rise of Macedon ·
 Wars of Alexander the Great ·
 Wars over Alexander's empire ·
 Lamian War ·
 Chremonidean War ·
 Cleomenean War ·
 Social War (220–217 BC) ·
 Cretan War ·
 Aetolian War ·
 War against Nabis ·
 Maccabean Revolt
 
 
Wars of the Roman Republic
Roman-Latin wars  (First Latin War  (Battle of Lake Regillus)
   ·
 Second Latin War)
   ·
 Samnite Wars ·
 Pyrrhic War ·
 Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) ·
 Macedonian Wars  (Illyrian ·
 First Macedonian ·
 Second Macedonian ·
 Seleucid ·
 Third Macedonian ·
 Fourth Macedonian)
   ·
 Jugurthine War ·
 Cimbrian War ·
 Roman Servile Wars  (First ·
 Second ·
 Third)
   ·
 Social War ·
 Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla  (First ·
 Second)
   ·
 Mithridatic Wars  (First ·
 Second ·
 Third)
   ·
 Gallic Wars ·
 Julius Caesar's civil war ·
 End of the Republic  (Post-Caesarian ·
 Liberators' ·
 Sicilian ·
 Fulvia's ·
 Final)
 
 
 
Wars of the Roman Empire
Germanic Wars  (Marcomannic ·
 Alamannic ·
 Gothic ·
 Visigothic)
   ·
 Wars in Britain ·
 Wars of Boudica ·
 Armenian War ·
 Civil War of 69 ·
 Jewish Wars ·
 Domitian's Dacian War ·
 Trajan's Dacian Wars ·
 Parthian Wars ·
 Roman–Persian Wars ·
 Civil Wars of the Third Century ·
 Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
 
 
 
 

Business seller information

RLwebsite
4 Edmund Street
Salford
Lancashire
M6 5WQ
United Kingdom

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Item location: Look at my other Items, United Kingdom
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Will Send Anywhere Worldwide. Payment by Cheque or Postal Order Preferred, but Paypal Accepted. All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. Please Email me any Questions at notinashyway@rlwebsite.com and I Will Reply ASAP.
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