1875 Through the Looking-Glass
Alice in Wonderland ILLUSTRATED Lewis Carroll
VERY Rare Sequel / Classic English
Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice
Found There (1871) is a novel by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), the
sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865). The themes and settings of
Through the Looking-Glass make it a kind of mirror image of Wonderland: the
first book begins outdoors, in the warm month of May (4 May), uses frequent
changes in size as a plot device, and draws on the imagery of playing cards;
the second opens indoors on a snowy, wintry night exactly six months later, on
4 November (the day before Guy Fawkes Night), uses frequent changes in time and
spatial directions as a plot device, and draws on the imagery of chess. In it,
there are many mirror themes, including opposites, time running backwards, and
author : Lewis Carroll ; John Tenniel
the looking-glass, and what Alice found there
Published: New York : Macmillan & Co., 1875.
FREE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE
wear as seen in photos; minor foxing
tight and secure binding
complete with all 224 pages; plus indexes, prefaces, and such
New York : Macmillan & Co., 1875.
X 5in (18.5cm x 12.5cm)
FREE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE
Very Fast. Very Safe. Free Shipping Worldwide.
Customer satisfaction is our first priority. Notify us
within 7 days of receiving your item and we will offer a full refund guarantee
the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a novel by Lewis
Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), the sequel to Alice's Adventures in
Wonderland (1865). The themes and settings of Through the Looking-Glass make it
a kind of mirror image of Wonderland: the first book begins outdoors, in the
warm month of May (4 May),[a] uses frequent changes in size as a plot device,
and draws on the imagery of playing cards; the second opens indoors on a snowy,
wintry night exactly six months later, on 4 November (the day before Guy Fawkes
Night),[b] uses frequent changes in time and spatial directions as a plot
device, and draws on the imagery of chess. In it, there are many mirror themes,
including opposites, time running backwards, and so on.
1 Plot summary
2.1 Main characters
2.2 Minor characters
2.3 Returning characters
3 Writing style and themes
4 Poems and songs
5 The Wasp in a wig
6 Dramatic adaptations
6.1 Stand alone versions
6.2 With Alice in Wonderland
7 In popular culture
8 See also
10.2 Other sources
11 External links
entering the Looking Glass. Illustration by Sir John Tenniel
is playing with a white kitten (whom she calls "Snowdrop") and a
black kitten (whom she calls "Kitty")—the offspring of Dinah, Alice's
cat in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland—when she ponders what the world is like
on the other side of a mirror's reflection. Climbing up on the fireplace
mantel, she pokes at the wall-hung mirror behind the fireplace and discovers,
to her surprise, that she is able to step through it to an alternative world.
In this reflected version of her own house, she finds a book with looking-glass
poetry, "Jabberwocky", whose reversed printing she can read only by
holding it up to the mirror. She also observes that the chess pieces have come
to life, though they remain small enough for her to pick up.
leaving the house (where it had been a cold, snowy night), she enters a sunny
spring garden where the flowers have the power of human speech; they perceive
Alice as being a "flower that can move about." Elsewhere in the
garden, Alice meets the Red Queen, who is now human-sized, and who impresses
Alice with her ability to run at breathtaking speeds. This is a reference to
the chess rule that queens are able to move any number of vacant squares at
once, in any direction, which makes them the most "agile" of pieces.
Red Queen reveals to Alice that the entire countryside is laid out in squares,
like a gigantic chessboard, and offers to make Alice a queen if she can move
all the way to the eighth rank/row in a chess match. This is a reference to the
chess rule of Promotion. Alice is placed in the second rank as one of the White
Queen's pawns, and begins her journey across the chessboard by boarding a train
that literally jumps over the third row and directly into the fourth rank, thus
acting on the rule that pawns can advance two spaces on their first move.
illustration of Tweedledum (centre) and Tweedledee (right) and Alice (left).
King snoring, by John Tenniel
then meets the fat twin brothers Tweedledum and Tweedledee, whom she knows from
the famous nursery rhyme. After reciting the long poem "The Walrus and the
Carpenter", the Tweedles draw Alice's attention to the Red King—loudly
snoring away under a nearby tree—and maliciously provoke her with idle
philosophical banter that she exists only as an imaginary figure in the Red
King's dreams (thereby implying that she will cease to exist the instant he
wakes up). Finally, the brothers begin acting out their nursery-rhyme by
suiting up for battle, only to be frightened away by an enormous crow, as the
nursery rhyme about them predicts.
illustration of the White Knight. 1871
next meets the White Queen, who is very absent-minded but boasts of (and
demonstrates) her ability to remember future events before they have happened.
Alice and the White Queen advance into the chessboard's fifth rank by crossing
over a brook together, but at the very moment of the crossing, the Queen
transforms into a talking Sheep in a small shop. Alice soon finds herself
struggling to handle the oars of a small rowboat, where the Sheep annoys her
with (seemingly) nonsensical shouting about "crabs" and
"feathers". Unknown to Alice, these are standard terms in the jargon
of rowing. Thus (for a change) the Queen/Sheep was speaking in a perfectly
logical and meaningful way.
crossing yet another brook into the sixth rank, Alice immediately encounters
Humpty Dumpty, who, besides celebrating his unbirthday, provides his own
translation of the strange terms in "Jabberwocky". In the process, he
introduces Alice (and the reader) to the concept of portmanteau words, before
his inevitable fall. "All the king's horses and all the king's men"
come to Humpty Dumpty's assistance, and are accompanied by the White King,
along with the Lion and the Unicorn, who again proceed to act out a nursery
rhyme by fighting with each other. In this chapter, the March Hare and Hatter
of the first book make a brief re-appearance in the guise of "Anglo-Saxon
messengers" called "Haigha" and "Hatta" (i.e.
"Hare" and "Hatter"—these names are the only hint given as
to their identities other than John Tenniel's illustrations).
leaving the Lion and Unicorn to their fight, Alice reaches the seventh rank by
crossing another brook into the forested territory of the Red Knight, who is
intent on capturing the "white pawn"—who is Alice—until the White
Knight comes to her rescue. Escorting her through the forest towards the final
brook-crossing, the Knight recites a long poem of his own composition called
Haddocks' Eyes, and repeatedly falls off his horse. His clumsiness is a
reference to the "eccentric" L-shaped movements of chess knights, and
may also be interpreted as a self-deprecating joke about Lewis Carroll's own
physical awkwardness and stammering in real life.
farewell to the White Knight, Alice steps across the last brook, and is
automatically crowned a queen, with the crown materialising abruptly on her
head. She soon finds herself in the company of both the White and Red Queens,
who relentlessly confound Alice by using word play to thwart her attempts at
logical discussion. They then invite one another to a party that will be hosted
by the newly crowned Alice—of which Alice herself had no prior knowledge.
arrives and seats herself at her own party, which quickly turns to a chaotic
uproar—much like the ending of the first book. Alice finally grabs the Red Queen,
believing her to be responsible for all the day's nonsense, and begins shaking
her violently with all her might. By thus "capturing" the Red Queen,
Alice unknowingly puts the Red King (who has remained stationary throughout the
book) into checkmate, and thus is allowed to wake up.
suddenly awakes in her armchair to find herself holding the black kitten, whom
she deduces to have been the Red Queen all along, with the white kitten having
been the White Queen. The story ends with Alice recalling the speculation of
the Tweedle brothers, that everything may have, in fact, been a dream of the
Red King, and that Alice might herself be no more than a figment of his
imagination. One final poem is inserted by the author as a sort of epilogue
which suggests that life itself is but a dream.
Haigha (March Hare)
Hatta (The Hatter)
The Lion and the Unicorn
The Walrus and the Carpenter
Tweedledum and Tweedledee
article: List of minor characters in Through the Looking Glass
Jabberwock, as illustrated by John Tenniel for Lewis Carroll's Through the
Looking Glass, including the poem "Jabberwocky".
characters of Hatta and Haigha (pronounced as the English would have said
"hatter" and "hare") make an appearance, and are pictured
(by Sir John Tenniel, not by Carroll) to resemble their Wonderland
counterparts, the Hatter and the March Hare. However, Alice does not recognise
them as such.
Alice's cat, also makes a return – this time with her two kittens; Kitty (the
black one) and Snowdrop (the white one). At the end of the book they are
associated with the Red Queen and the White Queen respectively in the
she does not appear, Alice's sister is mentioned. In both Alice's Adventures in
Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, there are puns and quips about two
non-existing characters, Nobody and Somebody. Paradoxically, the gnat calls
Alice an old friend, though it was never introduced in Alice's Adventures in
style and themes
White Queen offers to hire Alice as her lady's maid and to pay her
"Twopence a week, and jam every other day." Alice says that she
doesn't want any jam today, and the Queen tells her: "You couldn't have it
if you did want it. The rule is, jam tomorrow and jam yesterday- but never jam
to-day." This is a reference to the rule in Latin that the word iam or jam
meaning now in the sense of already or at that time cannot be used to describe
now in the present, which is nunc in Latin. Jam is therefore never available
This section requires expansion.
Carroll's diagram of the story as a chess game
the first book has the deck of cards as a theme, this book is based on a game
of chess, played on a giant chessboard with fields for squares. Most main
characters in the story are represented by a chess piece or animals, with Alice
herself being a pawn.
looking-glass world is divided into sections by brooks or streams, with the
crossing of each brook usually signifying a notable change in the scene and
action of the story: the brooks represent the divisions between squares on the
chessboard, and Alice's crossing of them signifies advancing of her piece one
square. Furthermore, since the brook-crossings do not always correspond to the
beginning and ends of chapters, most editions of the book visually represent
the crossings by breaking the text with several lines of asterisks ( * * * ).
The sequence of moves (white and red) is not always followed. The most
extensive treatment of the chess motif in Carroll's novel is provided in Glen
Downey's The Truth About Pawn Promotion: The Development of the Chess Motif in
Walrus and the Carpenter
the Looking-Glass world it was Alice that said...
for To the Looking-Glass world it was Alice that said...
playing this file? See media help.
Prelude ("Child of the pure unclouded
"Jabberwocky" (seen in the
mirror-house) (Jabberwocky (full poem) including readings)
"Tweedledum and Tweedledee"
"The Lion and the Unicorn"
"The Walrus and the Carpenter"
(The Walrus and the Carpenter (full poem))
"In Winter when the fields are
"Haddocks' Eyes" / The Aged Aged
Man / Ways and Means / A-sitting on a Gate, the song is A-sitting on a Gate,
but its other names and callings are placed above.
"To the Looking-Glass world it was
Alice that said..."
White Queen's riddle
"A boat beneath a sunny sky" is
the first line of a titleless acrostic poem at the end of the book—the
beginning letters of each line, when put together, spell Alice Pleasance
Wasp in a wig
Carroll decided to suppress a scene involving what was described as "a
wasp in a wig" (possibly a play on the commonplace expression "bee in
the bonnet"). It has been suggested in a biography by Carroll's nephew,
Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, that one of the reasons for this suppression was
due to the suggestion of his illustrator, John Tenniel. In a letter to Carroll,
dated 1 June 1870, Tenniel wrote:
...I am bound to say that the 'wasp'
chapter doesn't interest me in the least, and I can’t see my way to a picture.
If you want to shorten the book, I can’t help thinking – with all submission –
that there is your opportunity.
many years no one had any idea what this missing section was or whether it had
survived. In 1974, a document purporting to be the galley proofs of the missing
section was sold at Sotheby's; the catalogue description read, in part, that
"The proofs were bought at the sale of the author's ... personal effects
... Oxford, 1898...". The bid was won by John Fleming, a Manhattan book
dealer. The winning bid was £1,700. The contents were
subsequently published in Martin Gardner's The Annotated Alice: The Definitive
Edition, and is also available as a hardback book The Wasp in a Wig: A
Suppressed Episode ....
rediscovered section describes Alice's encounter with a wasp wearing a yellow
wig, and includes a full previously unpublished poem. If included in the book,
it would have followed, or been included at the end of, chapter 8 – the chapter
featuring the encounter with the White Knight.[original research?] The
discovery is generally accepted as genuine, but the proofs have yet to receive
any physical examination to establish age and authenticity.
book has been adapted several times, in combination with Alice in Wonderland
and as a stand alone film or television special.
adaptations include live and TV musicals, live action and animated versions.
One of the earliest adaptations was a silent movie directed by Walter Lang,
Alice Through a Looking Glass, in 1928.
dramatised version directed by Douglas Cleverdon and starring Jane Asher was
recorded in the late-1950s by Argo Records, with actors Tony Church, Norman
Shelley and Carleton Hobbs, and Margaretta Scott as the narrator.
versions include the 1966 TV musical with songs by Moose Charlap, and Judi
Rolin in the role of Alice, a Christmas 2007 multimedia stage adaptation
at The Tobacco Factory directed and conceived by Andy Burden, written by Hattie
Naylor, music and lyrics by Paul Dodgson and a 2008 opera Through the Looking
Glass by Alan John.
versions include the 1973 BBC TV movie, Alice Through the Looking Glass, with
Sarah Sutton playing Alice, a 1982 38-minute Soviet cutout-animated film
made by Kievnauchfilm studio and directed by Yefrem Pruzhanskiy, an animated
TV movie in 1987, with Janet Waldo as the voice of Alice (Mr. T was the voice
of the Jabberwock) and the 1998 Channel 4 TV movie, with Kate Beckinsale
playing the role of Alice. This production restored the lost "Wasp in a
March 2011, Japanese companies Toei and Banpresto announced that a
collaborative animation project based on Through the Looking-Glass tenatively
titled Kyōsō Giga (京騒戯画?) was in production.
Alice in Wonderland
combined with Alice in Wonderland include the 1933 live-action movie Alice in
Wonderland, starring a huge all-star cast and Charlotte Henry in the role of
Alice. It featured most of the elements from Through the Looking Glass as well,
including W. C. Fields as Humpty Dumpty, and a Leon Schlesinger Productions
animated version of The Walrus and the Carpenter. The 1951 animated Disney
movie Alice in Wonderland also featured several elements from Through the
Looking-Glass, including the poems "Jabberwocky" and "The Walrus
and the Carpenter". Another adaptation, Alice's Adventures in
Wonderland, was produced by Joseph Shaftel Productions (distributed by Fox-Rank
productions) in 1972, and is felt by many to be the most faithful adaptation to
the original novel, with the exception of the omitted scene with the Cheshire
Cat (Roy Kinnear) replaced by Tweedledum and Tweedledee (in a scene which
remains faithful to their respective scene from Alice Through the Looking
Glass). Fiona Fullerton played Alice, Michael Crawford played the White Rabbit,
Peter Sellers played the March Hare, and Dudley Moore played the Dormouse.
The 2010 movie Alice in Wonderland by Tim Burton contains elements of both
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass.
stage productions include the 1980 version, produced and written by Elizabeth
Swados, Alice in Concert (aka Alice at the Palace), performed on a bare stage.
Meryl Streep played the role of Alice, with additional supporting cast by Mark
Linn-Baker and Betty Aberlin. In 2007, Chicago-based Lookingglass Theater
Company debuted an acrobatic interpretation of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
and Through the Looking Glass with Lookingglass Alice. Lookingglass Alice
was performed in New York City, Philadelphia, Chicago, and in a version of
the show which toured the United States.
1985 two-part TV musical Alice in Wonderland, produced by Irwin Allen, covered
both books; Alice was played by Natalie Gregory. In this adaptation, the
Jabberwock materialises into reality after Alice reads Jabberwocky, and pursues
her through the second half of the musical. The 1999 made-for-TV
Hallmark/NBC film Alice in Wonderland, with Tina Majorino as Alice, merged
elements from Through the Looking Glass including the talking flowers,
Tweedledee and Tweedledum, The Walrus and the Carpenter, and the Chess theme
including the snoring Red King and White Knight. The 2009 Syfy TV
mini-series Alice contains elements from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and
Through the Looking Glass.
1977 film Jabberwocky expands the story of the poem
"Jabberwocky". The 1936 Mickey Mouse short film "Thru the
Mirror" has Mickey travel through his mirror and into a bizarre world. The
1959 film Donald in Mathmagic Land includes a segment with Donald Duck dressed
as Alice meeting the Red Queen on a chessboard.
epilogue has some resemblance to a segment of the famous play "La vida es
sueño" (Life is a dream, 1635), by the Spanish playwright Pedro Calderón
de la Barca.