MUSEUM REPRO!!!! REPRO , struck (no oftern listed cast fake), FULL size about 40mm, very good condition.
Orginal medal is no possible to get!!!!
Medal for 18 years of service established in 1768 year by King Stanislaw August Poniatowski - on reverse is „For Service of 18 years in the same „REGIMENT“
Stanisław II August Poniatowski (born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; January 17, 1732-February 12, 1798) was the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764-95). He was the son of Stanisław Poniatowski, Castellan of Kraków, and Konstancja Czartoryska; brother of Michał Jerzy Poniatowski, primate of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland; and uncle to Prince Józef Poniatowski.
Poniatowski was born in Wołczyn, Belarus. By the age of twenty, in 1752, as a Sejm deputy, Poniatowski had attracted attention with his oratory. He ultimately owed his career, however, to his uncles, the powerful Czartoryskis clan, who in 1755 sent him to Saint Petersburg, Russia, in the suite of the British ambassador, Sir Charles Hanbury-Williams. There, through the influence of Russian Chancellor A. P. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, he gained accreditation to the Russian court as ambassador of Saxony. Through Hanbury-Williams he met twenty-six-year-old Grand Duchess Catherine, who was irresistibly attracted to the handsome and brilliant young nobleman, for whom she forsook all other lovers.
After a coup d'état by the Czartoryski Familia — supported by Russian troops — on September 7, 1764, Poniatowski was elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The coronation took place in Warsaw on November 25, 1764. The new King's uncles in the Familia would have preferred another nephew, Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski, on the throne but Czartoryski had declined to seek the office.
Stanisław August--as he now styled himself--or "Ciołek", as he was deprecatingly called by some contemporaries and later historians (after his Ciołek Coat of Arms)--as King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which was at that time almost entirely controlled by the much more powerful neighboring powers (Russia and Prussia), remained at the mercy of circumstances. Nevertheless, in his difficult situation he strove to do his duty. He inaugurated some useful economic changes. He supported the Familia's reform program until 1766, when he fell out with his uncles. As king, Poniatowski effectively supported the Russian army's crushing of the Bar Confederation, between 1768-1772. On October 22, 1770, the Council of the Bar Confederation proclaimed him dethroned. Poniatowski was briefly a prisoner after being kidnapped by members of the Confederation in 1771, and held outside of Warsaw. Although he protested the first partition of the Commonwealth (1772), he was powerless to do anything about it, and in the face of implacable opposition from the Polish magnates, he was obliged to place his reliance in Russia's German ambassador, Otto Magnus Stackelberg. Acting in concert with him, he hoped to strengthen his authority and bring about essential reforms. It was only during the Four-Year Sejm of 1788-1792 that he threw in his lot with the reformers, centered in the Patriotic Party, and with them co-authored the Constitution of May 3, 1791.
Poniatowski's eloquent speech before the Sejm on taking an oath to uphold the newly adopted Constitution moved his audience to tears. Shortly thereafter, the Targowica Confederation was formed by Polish nobility to overthrow the Constitution. The confederates aligned with Russia's Catherine the Great, and the Russian army entered Poland, starting the Polish-Russian War of 1792. After a series of battles, Poniatowski, upon the advice of Hugo Kołłątaj and others, acceded to the Confederation. This undermined the operations of the Polish Army, which under Tadeusz Kosciuszko and the King's own nephew, Prince Jozef Poniatowski, had been performing prodigiously on the battlefield. The war was ended, and Russia and Prussia undertook the Second partition of Poland in 1793.
King Stanisław August remains a controversial figure. He was accused by some of striving for absolutism, of doing away with the liberties of the szlachta (Polish nobility), of desiring the downfall of the Roman Catholic Church; by others, of weakness and subservience, even of treason, especially after he had joined the Targowica Confederation.
Nevertheless, he did accomplish much in the realm of culture and education. He founded the School of Chivalry (otherwise "Corps of Cadets"), which functioned 1765-1794 and whose alumni included Tadeusz Kościuszko; and the Commission of National Education (1773), the world's first national ministry of education. In 1765 he helped found the Monitor, the leading periodical of the Polish Enlightenment, and the Polish national theater. He hosted his famous "Thursday dinners", the most brilliant social functions in the Polish capital. He supported the establishment of manufactures and the development of mining. He remodeled the Royal Castle in Warsaw, and erected the elegant Łazienki complex in Warsaw's most romantic park. He created a numismatic collection, a picture gallery, and an engravings room. His plan to create an even larger painting gallery in Warsaw was interrupted by the destruction of Poland; nonetheless, most of the paintings he had ordered can now be seen at the Dulwich Picture Gallery in London.
After the final, Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Stanisław August was forced to abdicate (November 25, 1795) and left for St. Petersburg, Russia. There, a virtual prisoner, he subsisted on a pension from Catherine the Great and died deeply in debt. In 1938 his remains were transferred to a church at Wołczyn, his birthplace, and in 1995, to St. John's Cathedral in Warsaw, where, on May 3, 1791, he had celebrated the adoption of the Constitution he had co-authored.
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