A new, unused item with absolutely no signs of wear. The item may be missing the original packaging, or in the original packaging but not sealed. The item may be a factory second or a new, unused item with defects. See the seller’s listing for full details and description of any imperfections.
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““All of our MAX Epoxy Resin formulations are engineered and manufactured in our Ontario, CA facility. It is also packaged and bottled under Federal Guidelines for packaging chemical goods and products. Each batch is tested and validated using established (ASTM) American Society for Testing and Materials and controlled testing methods.”
Epoxy/Polyamide based resins are one of the best systems to use for applications that will be subject to water immersion and marine environments. It provides excellent resistance to saltwater, acidic and caustic exposure and retains its physical properties even after prolonged water immersion.
2 GALLON COMBINED VOLUME (256 FL.OZ)
1 GALLON PART A (128 FL.OZ)
1 GALLON PART B (128 FL.OZ)
Items may be packaged in different container as shown
All containers used are UN and DOT approved for chemical packaging and shipping
PLEASE REVIEW BEFORE USE TO AVOID POSSIBLE CURING PROBLEMS
The following information will address many of curing problems that occur during the colder season. Due to the high purity nature of the resin component used in the formulation of the PART A or resin component, it is highly prone to crystallization during transport of the package.
We heat process all resin component before it is packaged for shipping, however cold temperature crystallization can occur during transport especially delivery destinations to colder regions where temperatures can be well below freezing ( < 0 degrees Celsius or < 32 degrees Fahrenheit).
If used unprocessed, the mixture will not cure due to the solid-liquid phase, causing the ineffective resin-PART A to curing agent- PART B mixture. IF the resin component has solidified or looks cloudy or turbid, follow the heat processing instructions below to ensure the proper cure of this resin system.
COLD TEMPERATURE NOTICE
DURINGTHE COLDER SEASONS THE RESIN AND CURING AGENT SHOULD BE WARMED TO AT
LEAST 75°F to 80°F (21°C to 27°C) PRIOR TO USE TO REDUCE IT'S VISCOSITY, REDUCE AIR BUBBLE ENTRAPMENT, MAINTAIN ITS WORKING TIME AND INSURE PROPER CURE. IN SOME CASES THE RESIN OR PART A MAY APPEAR TO BE CLOUDY OR SOLIDIFIED, WHICH IS AN INDICATION OF RESIN CRYSTALLIZATION.
USE BELOW 80°F
NOT USE UNLESS PROCESSED
NOT USE UNLESS PROCESSED
THE COLD TEMPERATURE EXPOSURE CAN OCCUR DURING TRANSPORT OR DELIVERY OF THE KIT WERE THE PACKAGE CAN BE EXPOSED TO TEMPERATURES BELOW 50°F AND CAUSE THE RESIN TO CRYSTALLIZE OR DEVELOP SEED CRYSTALS. ONCE A SEED CRYSTAL DEVELOPS, CRYSTALLIZATION CAN STILL OCCUR EVEN IF STORED
AT THE PROPER STORAGE TEMPERATURE.
DO NOT THROW AWAY OR USE THE RESIN UNTIL IT HAS BEEN MELTED BACK TO A FREE-FLOWING LIQUID PHASE BY GENTLE HEATING 120°F TO 150°F.
HIGH PURITY EPOXY COMPONENT AND THE ABSENCE OF ANY PLASTICIZERS AND OTHER NON-REACTIVE IMPURITIES IN ITS FORMULATION ARE SOME OF THE MANY KEY FACTORS THAT CONTROLS ITS HIGH PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES.
THE COLD TEMPERATURE WILL ALSO MAKE THE RESIN MUCH THICKER THAN THE
STATED VISCOSITY AND WORKING TIME VALUES AS STATED ON THE PHYSICAL TABLES CHART. THIS WILL REDUCE THE POLYMER'S REACTION RATE AND EXTEND ITS CURE TIME. THIS CAN RECTIFIED BY PRE-WARMING BOTH COMPONENT AND USING THE MIXED RESIN IN A CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENT NO COOLER THAN 70°F .
COMMON AND NOTICEABLE EFFECTS OF COLD TEMPERATURE EXPOSURE
HIGHER OR THICKER VISCOSITY
GRAINY OR CHUNKY CONSISTENCY
LESS ACCURACY IN VOLUMETRIC MEASUREMENT DUE TO ITS THICKER CONSISTENCY
CRYSTALLIZE OR SOLIDIFIED RESIN THAT WILL APPEAR AS A WHITE WAX-LIKE CONSISTENCY
MORE BUBBLE ENTRAPMENT DURING MIXING
REACTIVITY, LONGER CURE TIMES, POOR CURE
LOWER CURED PERFORMANCE DUE TO NONE FULL CURE POLYMERIZATION
HEAT PROCESSING EPOXY RESINS
TO COUNTER ACT THE AFFECTS OF THE COLD TEMPERATURE EXPOSURE, WARM THE RESIN GENTLY BY PLACING IT IN A PLASTIC BAG AND IMMERSE IT IN HOT WATER OR PACE THE CONTAINERS IN A WARM ROOM AND ALLOW IT TO ACCLIMATE UNTIL IT IS A VERY CLEAR AND LIQUEFIED.
THE RESIN TO COOL 75°F TO 80°F MAXIMUM BEFORE ADDING THE CURING AGENT.
PLACE MOUSE CURSOR ON THE PICTURE TO ACTIVATE PAUSE OR PLAY CONTROLS OF SLIDE SHOW
TO MELT THE CRYSTALLIZED RESIN FASTER HIGHER PROCESSING TEMPERATURE CAN BE UTILIZED BY PLACING IT IN A PLASTIC BAG OR MAKE SURE THAT THE LID IS SECURED TO PREVENT WATER FROM ENTERING THE CONTAINER AND IMMERSE IT IN HOT WATER , 140°F TO 180°F UNTIL ALL TRACES OF THE CRYSTALLIZED RESIN IS ONCE AGAIN A CLEAR LIQUID. THE CONTAINER CAN WITHSTAND 212°F (BOILING POINT OF WATER).
THE RESIN SHOULD REVERT BACK INTO A LIQUID IN LESS THAN 20 MINUTES. ALLOW THE RESIN TO COOL BELOW 80°F BEFORE ADDING THE CURING AGENT. A POLYMER RESIN'S PHYSICAL PROPERTY SUCH AS ITS VISCOSITY AND CURE RATE ARE HIGHLY AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE.
ALTHOUGH THE POLYMERIZATION HAS SLOWED DUE TO THE COLDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS MIXING THE RESIN AND CURING AGENT ABOVE 80°F AS IT WILL CAUSE RAPID POLYMERIZATION AND HIGH EXOTHERMIC HEAT BUILD-UP THAT
CAN EXCEED 300°F EXOTHERMIC HEAT WHEN KEPT IN MASS.
DO NOT HEAT AND MIX THE RESIN OR CURING AGENT BEYOND 90°F AS IT MAY CAUSE RAPID AND UNCONTROLLABLE REACTION. THE BEST WORKING CONDITION IS TO PREWARM THE RESIN AND CURING AGENT TO 70°F TO 75°F PRIOR TO MIXING AND ALLOW IT TO CURE AT AN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE NO LOWER THAN 65°F FOR AT LEAST 24 HOURS.
LOW VISCOSITY A/B
is a two-part epoxy/polyamide resin system specially
formulated to provide structural strength to a variety of marine and boat
building use such as structural fiberglassing, waterproofing, and high
strength bonding application.
the low viscosity version (thinner) of MAX BOND family of marine grade resin
systems providing improved ease of use and faster fiberglass fabric wetting.
Please note that the consistency of this formulation is similar 30-weight motor oil. It is only diluted from the base epoxy and curing agent formulation to yield ease of use and general fabric impregnation. Over dilution of the resin system ( below 1000 cPs similar to the consistency of cooking oil) are over diluted with lower functional epoxy diluents that will also dilute or lower the final cured mechanical strength.
All the MAX BOND series of epoxy resin demonstrates excellent adhesion to polyester based marine hulls. It is
best suited for structural building and reinforcement, waterproofing and in all
manners of boat building construction, repair and maintenance.
LOW VISCOSITY A/B demonstrates negligible loss of mechanical properties from
continuous water immersion. MAX BOND
LOW VISCOSITY A/B will cure even in humid and low temperature conditions. It is
generally room temperature cured but can be snap cured at elevated temperatures
for a short period of time.
LOW VISCOSITY A/B demonstrates structural bond strengths to a variety of
substrates commonly used in the manufacturing of modern marine vessels of such
as wood, steel, aluminum, copper and other metal alloys, polyester constructed
fiberglass and most plastics.
LOW VISCOSITY A/B performs well in wide range of service temperature and
resists cracking and delamination caused by repeated impact cyclic vibration,
thermal expansion/contraction and physical breakdown due to continuous sea
Bonds to Steel, Aluminum, Soft Metals, Concrete, Ceramic, Fiberglass, Composites
Non-Critical Mix Ratio, Equal Parts by Volume,
Brush, Roller Coat, Trowel Applied
Excellent Impact Resistance
Excellent Balance of Strength and Flexibility Excellent Water/Salt Water Resistant for Marine/Aero Applications Low Shrinkage, Wide range of service temperature
Conforms To Aerospace /Military/Naval Specifications MIL-A-8623 T1
Proper care must be taken to insure all usage instructions such as accuracy of mix ratio proportioning, component mixing to a homogenous state and established curing schedule must be observed. Please make sure to review all published usage instructions and processing information posted on this item page. Proportioning the resin and curing agent by weight must be observed to achieve an accurate mix ratio and reduce the likelihood of improper proportioning.
The FDA CFR Title 21 175.300 (coatings applications) only provides a list of raw materials and chemical compounds that can be utilized for the formulation of the MAX BOND and similar resin system for the same purpose. We validate the efficacy of the MAX BOND formulation by performing our internal laboratory extractable and leachable studies and deem its suitable performance.
The user should thoroughly test any proposed use of this product and independently conclude satisfactory performance in the application. Likewise, if the manner in which this product is used requires government approval or clearance, the user must obtain and validate said approval.
Form and Color
Part A – Clear Liquid
Part B – Amber Liquid
5,624 cPs @ 77°F (25ºC)
Equal parts by weight or by volume
65 Minutes @ 77°F (25ºC) (200 gm mass)
280°F 300 gram mass
36 Hrs. Minimum
Accelerated Heat Cure Time
2 Hrs. @ room temperature plus
120 min. @ 212°F (100°C)
85 Shore D
3.7 Pounds Per Inch Width
12,300 psi @ 77°F (25ºC)
Tensile Shear Strength
3,800 psi @ 77°F (25ºC)
1,900 psi @ -112°F (-80ºC)
1050 psi @ 212°F (100ºC)
2.3% Maximum Yield
-67°F to 250°F
510 volts per .001"
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE TEST
10 Day Soak Test @ 77°F (25°C)
WEIGHT CHANGE IN PERCENT
3% Salt Water
Sulfuric Acid 30%
Anti-Freeze or Motor Oil
QUALITY CONTROL TESTING OF MAX PRODUCTS
Each batch of resin and curing agent is tested for its basic physical property and must comply with standard established by our product engineering group. All test procedures are governed by ASTM or American Standards Test Methods, Internally developed test procedures developed by our internal materials engineer that are a modification of an ASTM test proceduremodified to determine or amplify the accuracy a specific physical or mechanical property of particular system; these are called ITMaS or Internal Test Methods And Standard
THIS LOW VISCOSITY VERSION IS FORMULATED TO PROVIDE EASE OF USE SUITABLE FOR FIBERGLASS WET-OUT AND IMPREGNATING APPLICATIONS FOR WOOD SEALING AND COMPOSITES FABRICATING
Lower Viscosity For Easy Wet And Dry Lay-up Application
PLEASE CALL OUR NEW TOLL FREE NUMBER FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
877 403 8008
MON-FRI 9:00 AM TO 4:30 PM PST
WHICH EPOXY IS BEST FOR YOUR APPLICATION?
Epoxy based polymers are one of the most versatile thermoset plastics that can be modified into a multitude of applications and fit very specific task as demanded by the application. It offers ease of use and generally safer to handle over other types of thermoset resins which makes it the choice material for many high performance composites.
New ideas demand new technology in material science and the skill to compose its constituent into a synergistic composite.
What is impact testing?
Impact testing is one of the most revealing test methods that demonstrate a material's ability to resist and withstand a high-rate of pressure loading at a short amount of time.
Its behavior during and after the impact can define its maximum mechanical property and conditional limits upon its destruction.
Why is Impact Testing Important?
The impact resistance of an object provides the ultimate measure of its resistance to its definitive destruction. Governed by the many laws and dynamics of physics, a skilled chemist or materials engineer can determine the design equilibrium and ultimate performance by careful analysis of the material’s disassociation and the manner of its destruction.
With this knowledge, other aspects of mechanical performance can be accurately derived and through skillful engineering one can determine the impact energies the part can withstand and design the construction that will resist such assaults over the projected life span.
TEST PER ASTM D695
Customer Submitted Photographs and Testimonials
Boat restoration project by Mr. William Merrick
"...Max-Bond Low Vis - The greatest stuff for boat rebuilding!"
THE COLDER SEASONS THE RESIN AND CURING AGENT SHOULD BE WARMED TO
AT LEAST 75°F to 80°F (21°C to 27°C) PRIOR TO USE TO REDUCE
ITS VISCOSITY, REDUCE AIR BUBBLE
ENTRAPMENT, MAINTAIN ITS WORKING TIME AND INSURE PROPER CURE. IN SOME
CASES THE RESIN OR PART A MAY APPEAR TO BE CLOUDY OR
SOLIDIFIED, WHICH IS AN INDICATION OF RESIN
USE BELOW 80°F
NOT USE UNLES PROCESSED
NOT USE UNLES PROCESSED
COLD TEMPERATURE EXPOSURE CAN OCCUR DURING TRANSPORT OR DELIVERY OF
THE KIT WHERE THE PACKAGE CAN BE EXPOSED TO TEMPERATURES BELOW 50°F
AND INITIATE THE RESIN TO CRYSTALIZE OR DEVELOP SEED CRYSTALS. ONCE
A SEED CRYSTAL DEVELOPS, CRYSTALLIZATION WILL OCCUR EVEN IF STORED AT
THE PROPER STORAGE TEMPERATURE.
DO NOT THROW AWAY OR USE THE RESIN
UNTIL IT HAS BEEN MELTED BACK TO A FREE-FLOWING LIQUID PHASE BY
GENTLE HEATING 120°F TO 150°F.
PURITY EPOXY COMPONENT AND THE ABSENCE OF ANY ACCELERATORS AND OTHER
NON-REACTIVE IMPURITIES IN ITS FORMULATION ARE SOME OF THE MANY KEY
FACTORS THAT CONTROLS ITS HIGH PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES.
THE COLD TEMPERATURE WILL ALSO MAKE THE RESIN MUCH THICKER THAN THE STATED
VISCOSITY AND WORKING TIME VALUES AS STATED ON THE PHYSICAL TABLES
CHART. THIS WILL REDUCE THE POLYMER'S REACTION RATE AND EXTEND ITS
CURE TIME. THIS CAN RECTIFIED BY PRE-WARMING BOTH COMPONENT AND USING
THE MIXED RESIN IN A CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENT NO COOLER THAN
COMMON EFFECTS OF COLD TEMPERATURE EXPOSURE
OR THICKER VISCOSITY
ACCURACY IN VOLUMETRIC MEASUREMENT DUE TO ITS THICKER CONSISTENCY
OR SOLIDIFIED RESIN COMPONENT THAT WILL APPEAR AS A WHITE WAX-LIKE
BUBBLE ENTRAPMENT DURING MIXING
CURED PERFORMANCE DUE TO NONE FULL CURE POLYMERIZATION
COUNTER ACT THE AFFECTS OF THE COLD TEMPERATURE EXPOSURE, WARM
THE RESIN GENTLY BY PLACING IT IN A PLASTIC BAG AND IMMERSE IT IN HOT
WATER OR A WARM ROOM AND ALLOW IT TO ACCLIMATE UNTIL IT IS A VERY
CLEAR AND LIQUID IN CONSITSENCY. ALLOW THE RESIN TO COOL 75°F TO
80°F MAXIMUM BEFORE ADDING THE CURING AGENT.
OVER THE SLIDESHOW TO PAUSE OR PLAY
MELT THE CRYSTALLIZED RESIN FASTER, HIGHER PROCESSING TEMPERATURE CAN
BE UTILIZED BY PLACING IT IN A PLASTIC BAG OR MAKE SURE THAT THE LID
IS SECURE TO PREVENT WATER FROM ENTERING THE CONTAINER AND IMMERSE IT
IN HOT WATER, 140°F TO 180°F UNTIL ALL TRACES OF THE
CRYSTALLIZED RESIN IS ONCE AGAIN A CLEAR LIQUID. THE CONTAINER CAN
WITHSTAND 212°F(BOILING POINT OF WATER); THE RESIN WILL REVERT BACK
INTO A LIQUID IN LESS THAN 20 MINUTES. ALLOW
THE RESIN TO COOL BELOW 80°F BEFORE ADDING THE CURING AGENT.
POLYMER RESIN'S PHYSICAL PROPERTY SUCH AS ITS VISCOSITY AND CURE
RATE ARE HIGHLY AFFECTED BY THE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COMPONENTS.
HEAT POST CURING TECHNIQUE FOR FASTER AND THOROUGH CURE
USE AN INFRARED HEAT LAMP FOR LARGER PARTS
USE THESE THEORETICAL FACTORS THAT RELATES TO ANY UNDILUTED EPOXY RESIN AS A GUIDE:
1 GALLON = 231 CUBIC INCHES
1 GALLON OF RESIN CAN COVERS 1608 SQUARE FEET
1 MIL OR 0.001 INCH CURED COATING THICKNESS
1 GALLON OF RESIN IS 128 OUNCES
1 GALLON OF MIXED EPOXY RESIN IS 9.23 POUNDS
1 GALLON OF RESIN IS 3.7854 LITERS
MIXING EPOXY RESINS
PLEASE VIEW THE FOLLOWING VIDEO PRESENTATION,
ALTHOUGH THE FEATURED EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM IS DIFFERENT THAN
THE MAX BOND LOW VISCOSITY, THE GENERAL TECHNIQUE AND PROPER MIXING PROCEDURE IS APPLICABLE.
USE THIS MIX TECHNIQUE TO ELIMINATE TACKY SPOTS, UNCURED SECTIONS AND POOR MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE THAT IS CAUSED BY POOR MIXING AND INCORPORATION OF THE RESIN AND CURING AGENT.
PLACE CURSOR OVER THE SLIDESHOW TO ACTIVATE PAUSE AND PLAY CONTROLS
Adobe Flash Player must be installed in your computer to view the demonstration video
Click on the box if you see a blank screen and a dialog box will open and download the latest version
EPOXY RESIN MIXING AND USAGE APPLICATIONS
VIEW THE FOLLOWING VIDEO FOR THE PROPER MIXING OF EPOXY RESINS. IT
DEMONSTRATES THE PROPER TECHNIQUE OF MIXING ANY TYPE OF EPOXY RESIN. THE
PROPER CURE AND FINAL PERFORMANCE OF ANY EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM IS HIGHLY
DEPENDENT ON THE QUALITY AND THOROUGHNESS OF THE MIX. THE RESIN AND
CURING AGENT MUST
BE MIXED TO HOMOGENEOUS CONSISTENCY
ON THE PICTURE TO PAUSE OR PLAY SLIDE SHOW
PROPER CURE AND FINAL PERFORMANCE OF ANY EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM IS HIGHLY
DEPENDENT ON THE QUALITY AND THOROUGHNESS OF THE MIXING QUALITY. THE
RESIN AND CURING AGENT MUST
BE MIXED TO HOMOGENEOUS CONSISTENCY TO ACHIEVE PROPER CURE AND TACK
By resolute definition, a fabricated COMPOSITE material is a manufactured collection of two or more ingredients or products intentionally combined to form a new homogeneous material that is defined by its performance that should uniquely be greater than the sum of its individual parts. This method is also defined as SYNERGISTIC COMPOSITION.
COMPOSITE MATERIAL COMPOSITION
REINFORCING FABRIC IMPREGNATING RESIN
STRUCTURAL STRENGTH COMPOSITE LAMINATE
PLACE CURSOR ON THE PICTURE TO PAUSE AND PLAY SLIDE SHOW
With respect to the raw materials selection( fabric and resin), the fabricating process and the intended composite properties, these 3 aspects must be carefully considered and in the engineering and manufacturing phase of the composite.
The following are some of the basic steps and guidelines for consideration.
STEP ONE: FABRIC SELECTION
TYPES OF FABRIC WEAVE STYLE AND SURFACE FINISHING
FOR RESIN TYPE COMPATIBILITY
Is a very simple weave pattern and the most common style. The warp and fill yarns are interlaced over and under each other in alternating fashion. Plain weave provides good stability, porosity and the least yarn slippage for a given yarn count.
8 HARNESS SATIN WEAVE
The eight-harness satin is similar to the four-harness satin except that one filling yarn floats over seven warp yarns and under one.
This is a very pliable weave and is used for forming over curved surfaces.
4 HARNESS SATIN WEAVE
The four-harness satin weave is more pliable than the plain weave and is easier to conform to curved surfaces typical in reinforced plastics. In this weave pattern there is a three by one interfacing where a filling yarn floats over three warp yarns and under one.
2x2 TWILL WEAVE
Twill weave is more pliable than the plain weave and has better drivability while maintaining more fabric stability than a four or eight harness satin weave. The weave pattern is characterized by a diagonal rib created by one warp yarn floating over at least two filling yarns.
COMMERCIAL FIBERGLASS-FABRIC WEAVER
Finishing Cross Reference
Resin Type Compatibility
n-pH (neutral pH)
Satin Weave Style For Contoured Parts Fabricating
These styles of fabrics are one of the easiest fabrics to use and it is ideal for laying up cowls, fuselages, ducts and other contoured surfaces with minimal distortions. The fabric is more pliable and can comply with complex contours and spherical shapes. Because of its tight weave style, satin weaves are typically used as the surface ply for heavier and courser weaves. This technique helps reduce fabric print through and requires less gel coat to create a smoother surface.
SATIN WEAVE TYPE CONFORMITY UNTO CURVED SHAPES
CLICK ON THE SLIDE SHOW TO PAUSE OR PLAY
Plain Weaves, Bi-axial, Unidirectional Styles For Directional High Strength Parts
Use this weave style cloth when high strength parts are desired.
It is ideal for reinforcement, mold making, aircraft and auto parts tooling, marine and other composite lightweight applications.
PLAIN WEAVE STYLE FOR HIGH STRENGTH
CLICK ON THE PICTURE TO PAUSE OR PLAY SLIDE SHOW
Please visit our eBay store for all available composite fabric suitable for your needs.
STEP TWO: CHOOSE THE BEST EPOXY RESIN
Choose the best epoxy resin system for the job
The principal role of the resin is to bind the fabric into a homogeneous rigid substrate
called a composite laminate or FRP- FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC.
The epoxy resin used in fabricating a laminate will dictate how the
FRP will perform when load or pressure is implied on the part.
To choose the proper resin system consider the following factors
that is crucial to a laminate's performance.
SIZE AND CONFIGURATION OF THE PART
(NUMBER OF PLIES AND CONTOURED, FLAT OR PROFILED)
(FREE STANDING DRY OR HAND LAY-UP, VACUUM BAG OR PLATEN PRESS CURING)
(HEAT CURED OR ROOM TEMPERATURE CURED)
(SHEARING FORCE, TORSIONAL AND DIRECTIONAL LOAD, BEAM STRENGTH)
(OPERATING TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY, CHEMICAL EXPOSURE, FORCE LOADING)
MATERIAL AND PRODUCTION COST
(CURED PERFORMANCE IS COST DRIVEN)
BUYING IN BULK WILL ALWAYS PROVIDE THE BEST OVERALL COSTS
These factors will dictate the design and the composition of the part and must be carefully considered during the design and engineering phase of the fabrication.
OUR GENERAL EPOXY RESIN SYSTEMS FORMULATED FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS
MAX GPE FOR GENERAL CONSTRUCTION LOW COST APPLICATIONS
SAFE TO USE ON POLYSTYRENE FOAM
MAX CLR HP CRYSTAL CLEAR HIGH PERFORMANCE APPLICATION
Proper Lay-Up Technique
Lay out the fabric and precut to size and set aside
Avoid distorting the weave pattern as much as possible
For fiberglass molding, insure the mold is clean and adequate mold release is used
View our video presentation "MAX EPOXY RESIN MIXING TECHNIQUE"
Mix the resin only when all needed materials and implements needed are ready and within reach
the proper amount of resin needed and be accurate proportioning the
resin and curing agent. Adding
more curing agent than the recommended mix ratio will not promote a
faster cure. Over
saturation or starving the fiberglass or any composite fabric will
yield poor mechanical performance. When mechanical load or pressure
is applied on the composite laminate, the physical strength of the
fabric should bear the stress and not the resin. If the laminate is
over saturated with the resin it will most likely to fracture or
shatter instead of rebounding and resist damage.
how much resin to use to go with the fiberglass?
good rule of thumb is to maintain a minimum of 30 to 35% resin
content by weight, this is the optimum ratio used in high performance
prepreg (or pre-impregnated fabrics) typically used in aerospace and
high performance structural application.For
general hand lay-ups, calculate using 60% fabric weight to 40% resin
weight as a safe factor. This will insure that the fabricated
laminate will be below 40% resin content depending on the waste
factor accrued during fabrication.
the entire precut fiberglass to be used on a digital scale to
determine the fabric to resin weight ratio. Measuring
by weight will insure accurate composite fabrication and
repeatability, rather than using OSY data.
fabric weights regardless of weave pattern
of 8 OSY fabric at 38 inches wide weighs 224 grams
of 10 OSY fabric at 38 inches wide weighs 280 grams
per square yard or OSY is also know as aerial weight which is the
most common unit of measurement for composite fabrics.
determine how much resin is needed to adequately impregnate the
fiberglass, use the following equation:
Weight of Fabric divided by 60%)X( 40%)= weight of mixed resin needed
target resin content
YARD OF 8-OSY FIBERGLASS FABRIC WEIGHS 224 GRAMS
of dry fiberglass / 60%) X 40% = 149.33 grams of
for every square yard of 8-ounce fabric,
will need 149.33 grams of
for resin and curing agent requirements based on
149.33 grams of
OF RESIN SYSTEM IS 2:1 OR
50 PHR (per
1 = 33.33%(1/3)
(66.67%+33.33%)=100% or (2/3+1/3)= 3/3
66.67%= 99.56 grams of Part A RESIN
33.33%= 49.77 grams of Part B Curing Agent
49.77 = 149.33
GENERAL FIBERGLASSING AND FRP FABRICATION
A 4 X 8 FEET 3/8 INCH THICK FIBERGLASS PANEL WAS FABRICATED WITH 18 PLIES OF 24 OUNCE FIBERGLASS ROVING IMPREGNATED WITH
MAX GPE RESIN SYSTEM.
THE PANEL WAS VACUUM CURED FOR 24 HOURS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND THEN POST CURED FOR 2 HOURS AT 200°F
AND THEN TESTED USING ASTM D695 TEST PROCEDURE.
32 PERCENT AVERAGE RESIN CONTENT
DETERMINATION OF FIBER TO RESIN RATIO
PLACE CURSOR ON THE PICTURE TO PAUSE AND PLAY SLIDE SHOW
NOTE THE MODE OF FAILURE OF THE COMPRESSION SPECIMENS ILLUSTRATING A CROSS AXIS FROM THE TOP AND BOTTOM PF THE SPECIMEN.
UNDER MAGNIFIED EXAMINATION, EVIDENCE OF RESIN MATRIX RESIDUE WAS PRESENT ON EACH PLY OF THE FIBERGLASS, THIS MODE OF FAILURE DENOTES A COHESIVE
FAILURE OR A DIRECT SPLITTING OF THE RESIN ITSELF.
15,116 PSI MAXIMUM COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
of resin = 4239 grams (1.12 g/cc)
= 128 fluid ounces
1 gallon of resin = 231 cubic inches
ounce of resin = 33.17 grams
the mixed resin unto the surface and then lay the fabric and allow
the resin to saturate through the fabric.
OTHER WAY AROUND
is one of the most common processing error that yields sub-standard
laying the fiberglass unto a film of resin, less air bubbles are
entrapped during the wetting-out stage. Air
is pushed up and outwards instead of forcing the resin through the
fabric which will entrap air bubbles. This technique will displace
air pockets unhindered and uniformly disperse throughout the
fiberglass with minimal mechanical agitation or spreading.
the slide show presentation
ON THE PICTURE TO PAUSE AND PLAY SLIDE SHOW
Fiberglass Reinforcing Technique Unto A Wood Substrate
ON THE PICTURE TO PAUSE AND PLAY SLIDE SHOW
Vacuum Bagging Process
BOND LOW VISCOSITY A/B
7781 9 OUNCE 8-HARNESS SATIN WEAVE TOP AND BOTTOM PLIE
FIBER CRYSTAL CLEAR HIGH PERFORMANCE SINGLE PLY
12-OUNCE 2X2 TWILL WEAVE CARBON FIBER
Given enough time and the proper selection of the fabric's surface treatment (fabric to resin compatibility), a dry fabric will seek a state equilibrium and distribute the applied resin and naturally release air bubbles entrapped within the laminate. It is then very important that the proper viscosity, working time and surface treatment of the fabric must be considered depending on the application of the composite structure. There are also fabricating techniques that can be employed to yield high performance laminates. Depending on the size of the part, processes such as high pressure pressing, vacuum bagging and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding are superior methods over hand dry lay-up. Air voids or porosity within the laminate is typically where failure propagates when load is applied(fracturing, compression failure, tearing, torque, tensile strength, creep).
VACUUM RESIN FUSION PROCESS WITH MAX 1618 A/B
Factors Of 100% Solids (Zero volatiles and unfilled epoxy resin)
STEP FOUR: PROPER CURING
Allow the lay-up to cure for a minimum of 24 to 36 hours before handling.
Optimum cured properties can take up to 7 days depending on the ambient cure condition.
The ideal temperature cure condition of most room temperature epoxy resin is 22 to 27 degrees Celsius at 20% relative humidity.
Higher ambient curing temperatures will promote faster polymerization and development of cured mechanical properties.
Improving mechanical performance via post heat cure
A short heat post cure will further improve the mechanical performance of most epoxy resins. Allow the applied resin system to cure at room temperature until for 18 to 24 hours and if possible, expose heat cure it in an oven or other source of radiant heat (220°F to 250°F) for 45 minute to an hour. You can also expose it to direct sunlight but place a dark colored cover, such as a tarp or cardboard to protect it from ultraviolet exposure.
In general room temperature cured epoxy resin has a maximum operating temperature of 250°F and 160°F or lower if it is under stress or load.
A short heat post cure will insure that the mixed epoxy system is fully cured, especially for room temperature cured system that can take up to 7 days to 100% cure
Some darkening or yellowing of the epoxy resin may occur if over exposed to high temperature (>250 F).
The affinity of an amine compound (curing agent) to moisture and carbon dioxide creates a carbonate compound and forms what is called amine blush.
Amine blush is a wax-like layer that forms as most epoxies cure. If the epoxy system is cured in extreme humidity (>70%).
It will be seen as a white and waxy layer that must be removed by physical sanding of the surface followed by an acetone wipe.Although we have formulated the MAX CLR, MAX BOND and MAX GPE product line to be resistant to amine-blush, it is recommended not to mix any resin systems in high humidity conditions, greater than 70%.
Always make sure that the substrate or material the epoxy resin system is being applied to is as dry as possible to insure the best cured performance.
OTHER TYPES OF EPOXY RESIN CURE MECHANISM
LATENT CURING SYSTEMS
Latent epoxy resins are systems that are mixed together at room temperature and will begin polymerization but it will not achieve full cure unless it is exposed to a heat cure cycle. In general, these are high performance systems that demonstrate exceptional performance under extreme conditions such as high mechanical performance under heat and cryogenics temperatures, chemical resistance or any environment that epoxy room temperature system perform marginally or poorly.
Upon the mixing of the resin and curing agent polymerization will begin and will only achieve partial cure. Some resins may appear cured or dry to the touch, this state is called 'B-Stage Cure' ,but upon application of force will either be gummy or brittle almost glass-like and will dissolve in most solvents. The semi-cured resin must be exposed to an elevated temperature for it to continue polymerization and achieve full cure.
UV CURING SYSTEMS
Similar to "addition cure" or catalytic polymerization, Ultraviolet Curing is another method that has gained popular use in the polymer adhesives and coatings application. It offers a unique curing mechanism that converts a liquid polymer into a solid plastic upon exposure to UV radiation. The two common commercially significant method are "FREE RADICAL INITIATION" and CATIONIC REACTION. In both reaction polymerization occurs via decomposition of a Photoiniator blended within the resin system; upon exposure to adequate wavelength of Ultraviolet energy the photoinitator degrades and cause a ring opening or cleavage of the photoinitiator molecule and induces rapid polymerization or crosslinking. These species can be either free radical or cationic and occurs almost instantaneous creation of a polymer network.
HEAT ACTIVATED CURING SYSTEMS
This type of epoxy system will not polymerized unless it is exposed to the activation temperature of the curing agent which can be as low as 200F and as high as 400F. In most instances these epoxy system can be stored at room temperature and remain liquid for up to six months and longer
USE AN INFRARED HEAT LAMP FOR LARGER PARTS IF A PROCESS OVEN IS NOT AVAILABLE
POSSIBLE HEAT CURING TECHNIQUES
If an oven is not available to provide the needed thermal post cure, exposing the assemble part to direct solar heat
(sun exposure) for a period will provide enough heat cure for the part to be handled.
Other heat curing such as infrared heat lamps can be used if a heat chamber or oven is not available.
3 Hours (after 24 hours room temperature cure) solar exposure Infrared heat bulb 3 hour exposure (200oF average) vacuum bag cure
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